Transportation and Communications Links
between
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
in 1849

Information found in contemporary
New Brunswick records

with special attention given to the
Nova Scotia Pony Express
(and an occasional item of general interest)


Contents
These documents are presented here in
 chronological order by date of publication.

  1. 1848 Dec 30
    Share certificates, New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company
  2. 1849 Jan 5
    Electric telegraph begins operation, Saint John - Calais
  3. 1849 Jan 5
    A crowd of wondering observers, even in an age of exciting marvels
  4. 1849 Jan 5
    Heavy snow storm delays Europa's newspapers to Saint John
  5. 1849 Jan 5
    Heavy snow storm delays Europa's newspapers to Fredericton
  6. 1849 Jan 6
    Steamship Unicorn sold
  7. 1849 Jan 6
    Mr. Mount, telegraph operator in Saint John
  8. 1849 Jan 13
    Hiram Hyde's letter to D. Caldwell (Saint John newspaper)
  9. 1849 Jan 13
    R.M.S. America arrival at Halifax January 10th
  10. 1849 Jan 13
    Sir John Franklin
  11. 1849 Jan 13
    Comment on construction of electric telegraph in Maine
  12. 1849 Jan 19
    Hiram Hyde's letter to D. Caldwell (Fredericton newspaper)
  13. 1849 Jan 19
    English Mail arrives at Frederiction in fourteen days from Liverpool
  14. 1849 Jan 20
    Four days and one hour for mail from Halifax to Quebec
  15. 1849 Jan 20
    R.M.S. America and R.M.S. Europa arrivals
  16. 1849 Jan 20
    Edward Knight Collins appears as serious competition to Cunard
  17. 1849 Feb 10
    British North American Electric Telegraph Association annual meeting
  18. 1849 Feb 10
    Repugnant to every loyal Colonist
  19. 1849 Feb 17
    R.M.S. Niagara arrives from England
  20. 1849 Feb 17
    No new cholera cases
  21. 1849 Feb 23 First Express Run, February 21-22
    The news arrived in Saint John at 8pm, immediately telegraphed to New York
  22. 1849 Feb 24 First Express Run, February 21-22
    Mr. Craig's new express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  23. 1849 Feb 24
    Royal Mail Steamer America arrived at Liverpool
  24. 1849 Mar 2
    Less than 15 days from Liverpool, England, to Saint John, New Brunswick
  25. 1849 Mar 3
    Recommendation that New Brunswick should buy telegraph shares
  26. 1849 Mar 9 Second Express Run, March 8
    The English news carried by express to Saint John, and telegraphed to New York
  27. 1849 Mar 10 Second Express Run, March 8
    Mr. Craig's new express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  28. 1849 Mar 17 Express Run, March 15-16
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  29. 1849 Mar 17
    Unsatisfactory conveyance of the Mail from Halifax to Saint John
  30. 1849 Mar 31
    Bain versus Morse, Bain's telegraph line from New York to New Brunswick
  31. 1849 Apr 7 Express Run, April 5-6
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  32. 1849 Apr 7
    Fred Gisborne arrives in Saint John
  33. 1849 Apr 21 Express Run, April 17-18
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  34. 1849 Apr 21
    Only one more Mail from Halifax through New Brunswick to Canada
  35. 1849 Apr 28 Express Run, April 25-26
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  36. 1849 May 5
    Post Office Expresses discontinued
  37. 1849 May 12
    25,000 letters and 14 bags of newspapers
  38. 1849 May 19
    Unsatisfactory mail service from Halifax to Saint John
  39. 1849 Jun 2
    Telegraph line from Saint John to Halifax will be built this year
  40. 1849 Jun 9 Express Run, June 5-6
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  41. 1849 Jun 9
    Proposals for improved mail service between Halifax and Saint John
  42. 1849 Jun 9
    Bypassing Halifax causes slow mail delivery to Montreal
  43. 1849 Jun 16 Express Run, June 13-14
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  44. 1849 Jun 23 Express Run, June 18-19
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  45. 1849 Jun 23
    First pole set in place in Halifax, for the Magnetic Telegraph line
  46. 1849 Jun 30 Express Run, June 27-28
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  47. 1849 Jun 30
    Telegraph line between Saint John and Halifax, construction about to begin
  48. 1849 Jul 7 Express Run, July 3-4
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  49. 1849 Jul 7
    The Telegraph wires not in working order
  50. 1849 Jul 21 Express Run, July 19-20
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  51. 1849 Jul 28 Express Run, July 24-25
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  52. 1849 Jul 28
    Mail from Saint John for England misses the boat at Halifax
  53. 1849 Aug 4 Express Run, August 2-3
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  54. 1849 Aug 4
    R.M.S. America arrived at Liverpool in eleven days from Boston
  55. 1849 Aug 11 Express Run, August 7
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  56. 1849 Aug 11
    Cunard steamship Kestrel wrecked at St. Shotts
  57. 1849 Aug 18 Express Run Failure
    No Steamer was dispatched to Granville, to meet the Express
  58. 1849 Aug 18
    New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company elects Board of Directors
  59. 1849 Aug 25 Express Run, August 22-23
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  60. 1849 Aug 25
    Telegraph poles between Amherst and Halifax are nearly up
  61. 1849 Sep 8 Express Run, September 5
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  62. 1849 Sep 15 Express Run, September 10-11
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  63. 1849 Sep 15
    New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company, final payment due on shares
  64. 1849 Sep 22 Express Run, September 19-20
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  65. 1849 Sep 29 Express Run, September 24-25
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  66. 1849 Sep 29
    Not less than seven miles an hour   [11 km/h]
  67. 1849 Oct 6 Express Run, October 2
    Last trip to Victoria Beach for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  68. 1849 Oct 6
    Electric telegraph line completed between Saint John and Sackville, New Brunswick
  69. 1849 Oct 13 Express Run via Amherst, October 10
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  70. 1849 Oct 20 Express Run via Amherst, October 17
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  71. 1849 Oct 27 Express Run via Amherst, October 24
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  72. 1849 Nov 3 Express Run via Amherst, November 2
    Mr. Craig's express service for Associated Press of Boston and New York
  73. 1849 Nov 3
    The telegraph line is now finished to Halifax, telegraph instruments yet to come
  74. 1849 Nov 3
    Steamer Commodore from Portland, brings news from Boston and New York
  75. 1849 Nov 10 Express Run via Amherst, November 8-9
    The last trip of Daniel Craig's express service for Associated Press
  76. 1849 Nov 10
    The telegraph line between Halifax and Saint John is now ready for operation
  77. 1849 Nov 17
    R.M.S. America arrives at Halifax in 11½ days from Liverpool
  78. 1849 Nov 24
    News delayed, telegraph line down east of Saint John
  79. 1849 Dec 1
    R.M.S. Canada arrives at Halifax in 10½ days from Liverpool
  80. 1849 Dec 8
    Telegraphic communication with Halifax interrupted Friday morning, 7 December 1849
  81. 1849 Dec 8
    Saint John River frozen over at Fredericton, persons crossing on the ice
  82. 1849 Dec 8
    L.R. Darrow, N.B.E.T.Co. Managing Director, writes a letter to the editor:
    Telegraph lines sabotaged in New Brunswick ...
    Shameful abuse ... puerile falsehoods ... slanderous attacks ... ignorant press ...
  83. 1849 Dec 15
    R.M.S. Europa arrives at Halifax in 12½ days from Liverpool
  84. 1849 Dec 15
    Steamer Maid of Erin, special trip from Saint John, for Digby and Annapolis
  85. 1849 Dec 22
    Mail from Saint John for England misses the boat at Halifax, postal schedule altered
  86. 1849 Dec 22
    Hudson & Smith, Boston, commercial agents, set up shop in Halifax
  87. 1849 Dec 29
    R.M.S. America arrives at Halifax, Associated Press news delayed four hours
  88. 1850 Jan 5
    R.M.S. Cambria arrives at Halifax in 12½ days from Liverpool
  89. 1850 Jan 12
    R.M.S. Canada overdue at Halifax
  90. 1850 Jan 12
    Telegraph war getting nasty, "gross fabrications" being "industriously circulated"
  91. 1850 Jan 19
    R.M.S. Canada arrives at Halifax in 14¾ days from Liverpool
  92. 1850 Jan 26
    R.M.S. Niagara arrives at Halifax from Liverpool
    F.O.J. Smith refuses to allow the A.P. news to be conveyed over his wires
    Associated Press hires special train to carry the news from Portland to Boston
  93. 1850 Feb 9
    Large reward offered for telegraph saboteurs
  94. 1850 Feb 16
    Mail Steamer Falcon eight days overdue at Halifax
  95. 1850 Feb 23
    Mail Steamer Falcon arrives safely at Halifax
  96. 1850 Mar 9
    R.M.S. America arrives at Halifax late on Feb. 23rd, from Liverpool
  97. 1850 Mar 9
    Halifax Stage arrives six hours late at Saint John
  98. 1850 Mar 9
    Steamer Commodore makes first trip of the season to Digby and Annapolis
  99. 1850 Mar 9
    R.M.S. America arrives at Halifax on March 8th, from Boston
  100. 1850 Mar 9
    Prompt attention given to break in telegraph line
  101. 1850 Mar 9
    Goods forwarded to all parts of the United States, also to California
  102. 1850 Mar 16
    Bain's telegraph line ends at Portland, Maine
  103. 1850 Mar 16
    Boston newspapers delivered to Saint John in less than three days
  104. 1850 Mar 23
    R.M.S. Niagara leaves Halifax for Boston; Mail waggon smashed
  105. 1850 Mar 23
    R.M.S. Canada leaves Halifax for Liverpool
  106. 1850 Mar 23
    Boston newspapers delivered to Saint John in about three days
  107. 1850 Mar 23
    Steamer Maid of Erin to carry mail weekly to United States

Note
The dates given for the Express Runs
from February 21 to October 2, 1849, inclusive,
are for the trip from Halifax to Saint John
via Kentville and Victoria Beach.

Note: The originals, from which these texts were obtained, are in fair
to poor condition.  Most of the text could be read, but here and there
words were beyond recovery.  Illegible text is indicated here by [---].





Saturday, 30 December 1848
NEW BRUNSWICK ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY
        The Stockholders will receive Stock Certificates in exchange for their receipts, on application at the office of the Company is Prince Wm. Street.
R. Jardine, President.
Saint John, 30th December, 1848.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 30 December 1848]




Friday, 5 January 1849
THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        The electric telegraph was set in operation for the first time on Friday last [December 29, 1848] and on Saturday morning the news by the English Mail was transmitted from Saint John, New Brunswick, to Calais, Maine.
[Weekly Chronicle, Saint John, 5 January 1849]




Friday, 5 January 1849
THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        The electric telegraph is now ready for operation.  A beginning was made yesterday [December 28, 1848] and the line was found perfect as far as Calais.  Something, however, is wrong between Calais and Bangor, but, no doubt, in a day or two all will be made right.  We noticed the Telegraph Office encircled all day yesterday by a crowd of wondering observers, and this certainly, even in an age of exciting marvels, is an invention to be wondered at.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John]
Reprinted in:
[New Brunswick Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser, Fredericton, 5 January 1849]

Certainly, even in an age of exciting marvels,
the electric telegraph is an invention to be wondered at.





Friday, 5 January 1849
        The Royal Mail steam ship Europa reached Halifax on Friday morning last at 8 o'clock, making the passage in 13 days from Liverpool to Halifax.  Owing to the late heavy snow storm the passage of the mail through New Brunswick has been somewhat impeded.  The letter portion arrived in Saint John about 10 o'clock on Sunday night, and the newspapers on Wednesday at noon.
[Weekly Chronicle, Saint John, 5 January 1849]

These two items, above and below, refer to the letters and newspapers carried on the Cunard steamer Europa, which departed Liverpool on Saturday, December 16, 1848, and arrived in Halifax on Friday morning, December 29, 1848.  The item above tells us Europa's newspapers reached Saint John about noon on Wednesday, January 3, 1849.  The item below tells us Europa's newspapers reached Fredericton Thursday afternoon, January 4, 1849.  When these newspapers arrived in Fredericton, the news in them was at least 19 days old and most of it was a couple of days older, but this was the latest European news then available.


Friday, 5 January 1849
        The letters by the Mail brought out by the Europa were received in Fredericton on Monday [January 1, 1849] but in consequence of the heavy snow-storm, the Papers did not arrive till yesterday afternoon [January 4, 1849].
[New Brunswick Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser, Fredericton, 5 January 1849]




Saturday, 6 January 1849
        The Steamer Unicorn, owned by Mr. James Whitney of Saint John, and which has been employed for several years past in carrying the Mails between Halifax and Newfoundland, has been purchased by the Hon. S. Cunard, of Halifax, for £10,000.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 6 January 1849]




Saturday, 6 January 1849
        Mr. Mount, the Magnetic Telegraph operator in this City, arrived on Thursday last from Fredericton, and has commenced his duties.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 6 January 1849]

The two terms magnetic telegraph and electric telegraph have
the same meaning.  Both refer to the same communication technology.
In the early days, when this revolutionary telegraph technology was new,
few people knew anything about the mysteries of magnetism and fewer still
had any idea what electricity was or how it worked.  The new telegraph
worked partly by electric and partly by magnetic effects, and people were
unsure just what to name it.  We now use electric telegraph as the
generic name of this system of communication.





Saturday, 13 January 1849
RAPID TRANSMISSION OF NEWS, EXPRESS FROM HALIFAX TO CONNECT WITH THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        We have been favored by D. Caldwell, Esq. with the perusal of a letter from Mr. Hyde, Mail Contractor at Halifax, dated the 5th instant [January 5th, 1849] which states, that gentleman will undertake to forward an Express to Amherst, with the News by the Royal Mail Steamers, to connect at that place with Mr. Caldwell's line to this city, and to travel at the rate of at least twelve miles an hour, and faster when the roads are in good travelling order, or, as Mr. Hyde emphatically expresses it, "as fast as horse flesh can do it and live!" The whole distance from Halifax to Saint John, at this rate of speed, would be performed in about twenty hours.  The news could then be telegraphed from Saint John to Boston or New York many hours previous to the arrival of the steamers at either of those ports.  We hope the bargain may be closed with these enterprising gentlemen, and the "horse flesh" set in motion!
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 13 January 1849]

This item was reprinted (below) in the Fredericton
New Brunswick Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser,
19 January 1849.





Saturday, 13 January 1849
        The Royal Mail Steamer America arrived at Halifax on Wednesday evening last, in eleven days from Liverpool, bringing the English Mail of the 30th December.  The letter express reached Saint John yesterday forenoon, and the newspapers were received soon after one o'clock this morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 13 January 1849]




Saturday, 13 January 1849
BY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        We learn by Telegraph from Calais this morning, that the British Surveying Schooner Herald had arrived at Mazatlan, having been unable to gain any intelligence of Sir John Franklin.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 13 January 1849]




Saturday, 13 January 1849
        It has got to be quite a received opinion, that we poor Bluenoses are fit for nothing; that we have no go-a-head-ism about us; that whatever we take in hand, in some way or other falls through; — and that this has been too often the case there is no denying, chiefly arising, however, from our having trusted too much to the swaggering pretensions of the quacks who have been entrusted with the management of said undertakings.  We have now, however, got something to brag about..  We have actually gone ahead of Brother Jonathan in a race in which we had an equal start — so there is some good in a Bluenose yet.  About three months ago, a line of Electric Telegraph was commenced between St. John and Portland, in the State of Maine.  The contracts were taken to be completed by Christmas; Well, on the very day, we toed the mark.  All ready! was shouted in words of fire right into the ear of the state of Maine.  The English Mail arrived, and we sent the news instanter to Calais — but there it stopped.  Jonathan excuses himself by saying that he was disappointed with his [---] that the heavy snowstorm delayed him, &c. and that he won't be ready for a fortnight yet.  It is but seldom that we got the chance of boasting — when it comes we ought to avail ourselves of it — so here goes for a regular crow-cock-a-&c.&c.&c.&c.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 13 January 1849]




Friday, 19 January 1849
RAPID TRANSMISSION OF NEWS
Express from Halifax to connect with the Electric Telegraph
        We have been favoured by D. Caldwell, Esq., with the perusal of a letter from Mr. Hyde, Mail Contractor at Halifax, dated the 5th inst. [January 5, 1849] which states that gentleman will undertake to forward an express to Amherst, with the news by the Royal Mail Steamers, to connect at that place with Mr. Caldwell's line to Saint John, and to travel at the rate of at least twelve miles an hour and faster when the roads are in good travelling order, or as Mr. Hyde expresses it "as fast as horse-flesh can do it and live!"
        The whole distance from Halifax to Saint John, at this rate of speed, would be performed in about 20 hours.  The news could then be telegraphed from Saint John to Boston or New York many hours previous to the arrival of the steamers at either of those ports.
        We hope the Bargain may be closed with these enterprising gentlemen, and the "horse flesh" set in motion!
[New Brunswick Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser, Fredericton, 19 January 1849]

This item is a reprint of the item (above) which
appeared in the Saint John New Brunswick Courier,
13 January 1849.





Friday, 19 January 1849
The English Mail of the 30th December, was received in Fredericton on Saturday last.
[New Brunswick Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser, Fredericton, 19 January 1849]

Translation:
The Mail which departed Liverpool, England,
on Saturday, December 30, 1848, reached
Fredericton on Saturday, January 13, 1849.





Saturday, 20 January 1849
        The letter-mail by the steamer America arrived at port Levy Quebec on Sunday night, 14th instant, having been only four days and one hour on the route from Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 20 January 1849]

This item refers to the letters that arrived in Halifax on the
Cunard steamship America on Wednesday, January 10th,
and then were forwarded from Halifax to Levis, Quebec.
The trip from Halifax to Levis took four days and one hour.





Saturday, 20 January 1849
        The steamship Europa, sixty hours from New York, with fifty passengers and 36,000 letters for England, arrived at Halifax on Saturday morning, and proceeded soon after on her voyage to Liverpool.
        The America arrived at Boston on the morning of the 13th inst. in less than thirteen days from Liverpool, via Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 20 January 1849]




Saturday, 20 January 1849
        Messrs. James Brown, E.K. Collins, E. Riggs and W. S. Wetmore, of New York, have announced their intention of applying to the Legislature of the State, to incorporate themselves and others under the name of the New York and Liverpool United States Mail Steamship Company, with a capital of $2,000,000, for the purpose of running a line of steamers between New York and Liverpool.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 20 January 1849]

From 1850 to 1858, the New York and Liverpool United States Mail Steamship
Company, better known as the Collins line, was a serious competitor to Cunard on
the North Atlantic.  Collins' ships were newer, faster, and larger than Cunard's ships,
and posed a serious threat to Cunard's future.  The story of Edward Knight Collins,
and his shipping operations, is one of the more gripping tales of the North Atlantic's
long, dramatic, and often tragic history.





Saturday, 10 February 1849
BRITISH NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH ASSOCIATION
        At the general annual meeting of the stockholders of this association, held at Quebec, on the 11th inst. [January 11th, 1849] a report drawn up by F. N. Gisborne, Esq. was unanimously adopted and it was resolved to increase the capital stock to £14,000 currency, in order that the telegraph line between Quebec and Halifax may be speedily completed and to allow the new stockholders a dividend of 6 per cent out of the profits of the line when completed, before any interest or dividend is paid on the original stock of £6,500, on payments to be called in until the whole of the additional stock be taken up.  A list of subscribers to the new stock was opened forthwith and a large amount we understand was subscribed. 
        The following gentlemen were elected directors for the ensuring years: A. Gillespie, J Gillespie, Captain Boxer, R.N. C. Wortele, J. Munn, H LeMeserier, W. J. C. Benton, S. Wright, J. Gibb.  At a subsequent meeting of the directors, A. Gillespie, Esq. was unanimously elected president of the association.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 10 February 1849]




Saturday, 10 February 1849
THE ENGLISH MAILS
        There is reason to believe that a change is about to take place with respect to the English Mails for Canada, which it is proposed to transmit from Boston and New York direct to Montreal and Quebec without passing through these provinces at all.  This measure is proposed to be followed by changing the route of the Mail steamers, which, instead of touching at Halifax, are to proceed at once to the United States.  Either of these changes would be most prejudicial to this province.  In a business point of view it would be very injurious to receive our English Mails from Boston, and most repugnant in every loyal Colonist.  A Petition against these changes now lies for signature at the Bookstore attached to this office, which has already received numerous signatures.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 10 February 1849]

In this item, "these provinces" means New Brunswick and Nova Scotia;
"Canada" means the territory which now forms Quebec and Ontario.





Saturday, 17 February 1849
        The steamship Niagara, Captain Stone, with the Mail of the 27th January, from Liverpool, arrived at Halifax on the 9th inst. in thirteen days from Liverpool.  The express letter portion of the Mail reached Saint John at an early hour on Sunday morning.  The Niagara arrived at Boston on Sunday forenoon.  She encountered much severe weather on the passage and was detained several hours by ice off Cape Sable.  She brought fifty two passengers.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 17 February 1849]




Saturday, 17 February 1849
BY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
New Orleans, Feb 13
        The Mississippi is receding.  There have been no new cases of Cholera.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 17 February 1849]




Friday, 23 February 1849
        The steam ship Europa reached Halifax on Wednesday afternoon [February 21, 1849] at 5 o'clock, with the mail of 10th instant.  The letter portion arrived this morning, but the news was anticipated by the arrival, at 8 o'clock last evening by the Steamer Commodore, Captain W.G. Browne, from Digby Basin, having received it in 11 hours from Halifax.  The intelligence was immediately transmitted by telegraph to Boston, New York, &c., where it would no doubt arrive many hours in advance of the mail steamer.
[Weekly Chronicle, Saint John, 23 February 1849]




Saturday, 24 February 1849
ENGLISH MAIL — AMERICAN EXPRESS
        A little after eight o'clock on Thursday evening last, the steamer Commodore, Capt. Brown, arrived from Digby Basin, bringing Mr. Craig, an American gentleman, who had undertaken on behalf of the Associated Press of Boston and New York to express the news by the Steamer Europa, from Halifax to Saint John, and thence by Electric Telegraph to Boston and New York.  The arrangements on the road from Halifax to Granville Point, were very complete, and the distance was accomplished with single horses, in a light sleigh, in eleven hours, being a speed of about thirteen miles an hour! The Europa arrived at Halifax on Wednesday afternoon at five o'clock, in eleven days from Liverpool, and on Thursday morning at four, the messenger with her news was at Granville Point, but owing to the unusual quantity of ice in Digby Basin, it was nearly four o'clock in the afternoon before the Commodore was got into clear water.  On her arrival in Saint John the Electric wires were immediately set to work, and the operator here, Mr. Mount, transmitted the intelligence in a manner which, while it gave satisfaction to the American editors, proved that the management of the Office has been entrusted to very competent hands.
        The Post Office express by the land route from Halifax, with the letter Mail, reached Saint John at six o'clock yesterday morning, and the newspaper express arrived about seven o'clock this morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 24 February 1849]

In these items, "Granville Point" means the hamlet now known
as Victoria Beach, Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.





Saturday, 24 February 1849
        The Mail steamer America arrived at Liverpool on the 4th February, after a run of a little over eleven days from Boston, including the stay at Halifax.  She would be the next steamer for America, and would leave Liverpool to-day (Feb 24th).
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 24 February 1849]




Friday, 2 March 1849
THE MAILS
        Our mail contractors and carriers have run a race with the magnetic telegraph and followed very closely upon their heels.  Thanks to their efficiency, letters written in London on the 9th February and shipped at Liverpool on the 10th were received at Saint John at 9 o'clock in the morning of the 25th, less than fifteen days after the sailing of the Europa from Liverpool, having been carried 700 miles overland from Halifax in little more than three days and a half, in the midst of winter, and after a snow storm such as had not occurred in the Eastern provinces for upwards of fifty years.
        The news, forwarded by special express to Saint John, and thence by telegraph had been published but one day before the arrival of the letter mail in Quebec.  It will be yet some days before we receive the New York papers containing it.
[Weekly Chronicle, Saint John, 2 March 1849]




Saturday, 3 March 1849
ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        Mr. End, from the Committee on Telegraph petitions, submitted a report recommending that the Province take stock in the British North American (Quebec) Company to the amount of £5000.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 3 March 1849]




Friday, 9 March 1849
ENGLISH MAIL 24th February
        This mail reached Halifax yesterday morning at 3 o'clock, and the news was dispatched by express to Saint John, arriving here in fifteen hours afterwards, via the Bay of Fundy.  It was immediately forwarded by Telegraph to New York, where it would arrive about 15 or 18 hours in advance of the mail steamer.  The express was run from Halifax to Digby at the rate of nearly 17 miles an hour.
        By the politeness of Capt. John Leavitt, who was placed in charge of the express steamer across the Bay of Fundy, and of the gentlemen who conducted the express arrangements, we have been put in possession of the latest English papers, from which we make the most important extracts.
[Weekly Chronicle, Saint John, 9 March 1849]

ICS comment (written 6 June 1999):
The heading "English Mail, 24th February" refers to the date
when Cunard's Royal Mail Steamship departed Liverpool.
Always, immediately before departure from England, copies
of the latest available newspapers were brought on board the
ship, to ensure that the news delivered to North America
would be the most recent that could be obtained.  In this case,
"the latest English papers" means the English and European
news available in Saint John on 9th March 1849 was at least
13 days old, and most of it was 14 or 15 days old.  This item does
not name "the gentlemen who conducted the express arrangements"
but there is little doubt this was arranged by Daniel H. Craig.





Saturday, 10 March 1849
ENGLISH MAIL — ANOTHER AMERICAN EXPRESS!
        The steamer Conqueror arrived in Saint John harbour at six o'clock on Thursday evening, from Granville Point, bringing the news by the Mail Steamer America, which arrived at Halifax at half-past two o'clock on Thursday morning, in eleven and a half days from Liverpool.  The news was received in Saint John in fifteen hours from Halifax! — which is the quickest run on record.  It was conveyed by horse express, at the rate of about seventeen miles an hour! from Halifax to Granville Point, where the steamer Conqueror was in waiting.  In her passage across the Bay she encountered some floating ice, which delayed her an hour or two; but on the whole the distance from Halifax was accomplished in an unprecedentedly short space of time; and says much for the arrangements made by Mr. J. T. Smith, of Boston, and Capt. John Leavitt, of Saint John, who had charge of the Steamer.
        The news was immediately telegraphed to the "combined press" in the United States by Mr. Smith, with whom an engagement had been made for that purpose.  We have to thank him for a copy of Willmer & Smith's European Times of the latest date, February 24th.
        The Post-office Express, with the letters, arrived in Saint John at nine o'clock, last night — the Newspaper Express had not reached here at two o'clock today.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 10 March 1849]

ICS comment (written 6 July 1999):
"Mr. J. T. Smith, of Boston" is the Mr. John T. Smith to whom D.H. Craig addressed a letter, dated at Halifax, Dec. 14, 1849.  Craig's letter begins:

Mr. John T. Smith, Esq.:
Dear Sir:
"Certain of your friends in Boston, as I have reason to know, are not only exerting themselves to benefit you, but they are doing so under the apprehension, apparently, that it is absolutely necessary that I should be sacrificed, and fairly hooted from the field to make room for you.  And, to effect their purposes, they have resorted, among other expedients, to a system of the most outrageous, mean, and contemptible falsehoods — falsehoods so base that a common highwayman or the midnight assassin would blush to be the author of — to parties here, who are presumed to occupy positions that enable them to exert a controlling influence to my disadvantage..."

The influential "parties here" were the Commissioners of the Nova Scotia Electric Telegraph.  A year later, Craig wrote: "After mature reflection, I see very little in the spirit of the letter that I would wish to amend."

There were two Smiths (I have found no indication they were related) involved in the management of the telegraph lines between Boston and Halifax; one was John T. Smith and the other was the notorious Mr. Francis Ormand Jonathan Smith of Boston and Portland, Maine, of whom Alexander Jones wrote the following:

The first telegraph line between New York and Boston was opened in 1846, under the management of F.O.J. Smith, with whom some of the Boston newspapers became offended at his management, and nicknamed him "Fog Smith," by which he became well known.  He had purchased one fourth interest in Morse's patent while a member of Congress, between the years of 1838 and 1844.  He was at one period Chairman of the Committee of Commerce, which reported the appropriation bill of $30,000 in favor of Morse, and which ultimately passed.  He built the line in conjunction with a company of subscribers, and in virtue of a contract with Kendall, Morse, and Vail, co-proprietors of the patent.  Smith finally purchased a sufficient number of shares to give him a majority of the stock.  He afterwards managed the line as he pleased, regardless of the views or wishes of many leading newspapers, with whom he became involved in bitter quarrels, and which resulted in the erection and encouragement of opposition telegraph lines under House's and Bain's patents, from New York to Boston, and of another line from Boston to Portland, Maine, where Bain's line joined on to the line between Portland and Saint John.  From Saint John, another line was continued by a provincial company to Halifax, and by which the new York Associated Press have received news brought by steamships to the latter town, without using Smith's line.  In 1847 Smith built a telegraph line himself from Boston to Portland, and owned it as his exclusive property.

[Excerpted from Historical Sketch of the Electric Telegraph, by Alexander Jones, published by George E. Putnam, New York, 1852.]

In 1848, Dr. Alexander Jones, a graduate in medicine whose early interest in communications had lured him into journalism, became the first general manager of the newly-formed New York Associated Press.  Jones opened a simple office at the top of a long, dim flight of stairs at the northwest corner of Broadway and Liberty Street, in New York.  This served as the headquarters of The Associated Press for more than two decades.  At first the entire New York staff consisted of Jones and one assistant.  Jones gave The Associated Press all his energy and ability, but was seriously overworked and submitted his resignation on May 19, 1851.  Jones' replacement as general manager was Daniel H. Craig.
[Excerpted from AP: The Story of News, by Oliver Gramling, 1940]





Saturday, 17 March 1849
        The steamer Commodore, Capt. W. G. Brown, arrived at three o'clock yesterday afternoon, from Granville Point, bringing the news furnished by the Royal Mail Steamer Canada, which arrived at Halifax on Thursday night at ten o'clock, in twelve days and ten hours from Liverpool.
        The Express for the United States Associated Press, left Halifax at eleven o'clock on Thursday night, and reached Granville Point yesterday morning, in nine hours and twenty five minutes — an extraordinary run considering the state of the roads.  The whole distance to Saint John was performed in fifteen hours and a half!
        The news was immediately telegraphed to the United States, and soon after issued in an extra from the office of the New Brunswicker, to which paper we are indebted for our extracts.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 17 March 1849]




Saturday, 17 March 1849
TRANSMISSION OF THE MAILS
        The journals of the House of Assembly of the 6th instant, contain certain communications from the imperial Government respecting the transmission of the British Mails to Canada, from which it would appear that it is intended to forward them in future by way of United States, instead of through the Provinces, as at present.
        These communications are accompanied by a copy of the report of Mr. Watson, Post-office Surveyor, on the state of the roads in Nova Scotia, also copy of an offer made by the Messrs. King, of this city, to carry these Mails from Halifax to Amherst, in which they confidently assert that the road complained of is as good as any of the mail routes in New Brunswick, and such being the case, from their knowledge and experience of what horses can do, they know that they can make good their proposals.
        As the conveying of these Mails through the British Provinces is of vital importance, both as regards early communication with the Mother country, and the expenditure of the cost of transmission through our own territory; and as we are bound to believe that the threatened injustice, if it be infected upon us, will have been caused by the exaggerated descriptions of the roads in Nova Scotia, we are of opinion that those in authority should lose no time in laying the matter before the Home Government in its proper light, which, if done in time, might secure the transmission of Mails by the present route; for when it is known that all the North American Provinces receive their correspondence earlier than they could by way of the United States, the British Government is not so ungrateful as to give the carrying of the communications of her own subjects into the hands of foreigners, while the former have to pay for it.
        The inconsistency of Mr.Watson's report explains itself, — it requires no amount of fancy to understand him asking for a double graveled road from Halifax to Amherst, and also for the continuance of the present contractor's high contracts until the road is made — for after giving a descriptions of the roads, and stating the number of horses used by the contractors dragging the mail through the deep mire, he says that the contractors would be quite prepared to make a corresponding reduction if a better state of things existed.  The contractors in Nova Scotia, according to the report, have no less than eleven horses for every stage, especially for the express mails.  If such is the case, they certainly use them unproportionably, for it is an undeniable fact that the letter portion of the last express mail was conveyed from Truro to Amherst, stage by stage, with but one horse in a "pung," drawing after him, besides this large mail and the driver, a passenger and his luggage, which it is utterly impossible for one horse to do, and make eight miles an hour.  Although the contract forbids carrying passengers, yet no fault need be found if the time be kept — and particularly as in this case, the gentleman had just returned from England, and from public and private motives was no doubt, extremely anxious to reach his home; but when such a cumbrous load is put after one horse, we need not wonder that it took twenty-four hours to reach Amherst, a distance of 124 miles.  The same mail was brought from Amherst to Saint John, a distance of 140 miles, in less than seventeen hours.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 17 March 1849]




Saturday, 31 March 1849
THE TELEGRAPH WAR, Bain vs. Morse
        We publish on our first page the recent decision of Judge Cranch, of Washington City, in the case of Bain vs. Morse, on an appeal of the former from a decision of the Commissioner of Patents.  Judge Cranch decides that the claims of the two parties as to any matters contained in their respective specifications which is now presentable, do not conflict with each other; and consequently, that each is entitled to a patent for the combination which he has himself invented.  This is, in effect, a decision that the Telegraph monopoly no longer exists.  For it is well known that Bain's Telegraph is an excellent one, in some respects superior to Morse's, and that wherever erected, it will be likely to command an equal share of the public patronage.  A knowledge of this fact will be of use in keeping down prices or (which is the same thing in the end) putting them down.  Such a line is now in process of construction from New York to Boston, and will ultimately be extended to New Brunswick.
[New York Journal of Commerce]
[Reprinted in the New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 31 March 1849]

ICS Comment (written 5 June 1999): Alexander Bain, now almost completely forgotten, was a telegraph rival of Samuel Morse.  Bain's electric telegraph worked very well, by the standards of the late 1840s, and was a serious competitor against Morse in the early days.  Some telegraph lines were built under the Morse patent using Morse's equipment, and others were built under the Bain patent using Bain's equipment.

When practical telegraphic communication was solved by Henry, Morse, and others, further advances in various directions were made.  Efforts to increase the rapidity in sending messages soon grew into practical success, and in 1848 Bain's Chemical Telegraph was brought out.  (U. S. Patents No. 5,957, Dec 5, 1848, and No. 6,328, April 17, 1849.) This employed perforated strips of paper to effect automatic transmission by contact made through the perforations in place of the key, while a chemically prepared paper at the opposite end of the line was discolored by the electrical impulses to form the record.  This was the pioneer of the automatic system which by later improvements is able to send over a thousand words a minute...
Source: The Progress of Invention in the 19th Century by Edward W. Byrn, Munn and Co., Publishers, Scientific American Office, New York, 1900
Found on the Internet at
http://www.islandnet.com/~ianc/dm/20/204.html





Bain's system was sometimes called Bain's Chemical Telegraph, and other times Bain's Electric Telegraph.  Both names refer to the same system for transmitting messages quickly over long distances.

The term "chemical telegraph" referred only to the method of recording the message at the destination, which in Bain's system was done by using the received electric impulses to change the colour of a line drawn by an electrically-controlled stylus on a strip of specially-treated paper.

The term "electric telegraph" referred to the method of transmitting the message from origin to destination, which in Bain's system (as in Morse's system) was done by passing an electric current through an iron wire suspended high overhead on insulators at the top of wooden poles.

The term "chemical telegraph" was essentially a facade to disguise the basic similarity between the two systems.  The Bain company chose to use the name "Bain's Chemical Telegraph Company" to make it sound fundamentally different from "Morse's Electric Telegraph Company"; this made it much easier for the courts to rule that Bain's lines did not infringe on Morse's patents.




In 1842, Alexander Bain proposed a facsimile telegraph.  Historians normally associate Bain's ideas with the modern day facsimile (fax) machine.  However, it is his concept of scanning an image — breaking it up into small parts for transmission — that is at the heart of today's television transmission.
Source: SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Toronto Section
Found on the Internet at
http://www.smpte.org/sections/yyz/pastmeet/cifs.htm





Online image of a Bain telegram dated Boston, Jan. 1851





Saturday, 7 April 1849
THE ENGLISH MAIL of the 24th March, by the Steamship Niagara arrived at Halifax on Thursday last at half past two o'clock, and the Express by horses to Granville, and thence by the Steamer Herald, reached Saint John at a quarter past eight yesterday morning.  The news was communicated forthwith by Telegraph to the United States, and published in the afternoon from the Office of the New-Brunswicker.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 7 April 1849]




Saturday, 7 April 1849
TELEGRAPH FROM HALIFAX TO QUEBEC
        We understand that Mr. Gisborne, Agent of the North American Electric Telegraph Company, who arrived in Saint John on Tuesday last, has succeeded in getting the whole of the Stock for the line of Telegraph from Halifax to Quebec subscribed for.  Of the amount required — £16,000 — £10,000 have been taken in Canada, and the principal part of the remainder in Halifax.
        It is expected that the line will be completed by September next.
        The Company in this City will doubtless take the necessary steps to connect with the line at Amherst, Nova Scotia.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 7 April 1849]

"£10,000 have been taken in Canada" means this
amount was raised in Quebec (Lower Canada),
and Ontario (Upper Canada).

"The Company in this City" means the
New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company.





Saturday, 21 April 1849
        The Steamer Herald, Capt. Donehey, arrived at Saint John on Wednesday morning at three o'clock, from Granville, bringing Mr. Craig, agent of the United States Associated Press, with the English news, by the Royal Mail Steamship, Europa, which sailed from Liverpool on the 7th of April.  The intelligence was thus received in St. John in ten days and a half from Liverpool! The Steamer arrived at Halifax on Tuesday morning at ten o'clock in 9¾ days' passage, and the Express reached Saint John in fifteen hours and twenty minutes, running time, from Halifax at [---].  The Magnetic wires were set in motion to convey the news to the United States and in the afternoon an Extra New-Brunswicker circulated it in St. John.
        The Post Office Express, with the Letter-Mail for this Province and Canada, arrived at one o'clock on Thursday morning, and the Newspaper Express at eight o'clock yesterday morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 21 April 1849]




Saturday, 21 April 1849
CANADA MAILS
        We understand that the contractors for carrying the Canada Express Mail, received notice by the last steamer that only one more Mail would be forwarded from Halifax by the land route — it being the intention of Government to forward the Canada Mails through the United States.  Although this is a matter of little importance to St. John, in comparison with Quebec, yet the change will probably have the effect to delay the receipt of our letter mail two or three days longer than heretofore.
        We are glad to learn that an effort is to be made to prevail upon the Post Office Department to forward our letter mail by the Associated Presses Express, which, in point of time would place us in our correspondence, from 24 to 48 hours nearer to Europe that we have ever been before.  Should the Department not feel inclined to avail itself of the opportunity which is now offered for having the mail brought through in 12 or 15 hours, there is no doubt but that most of our Merchants will take measures to have their Correspondence forwarded from Halifax out of the mail.  We are sure that there is every disposition on the part of the Manager of the Express to afford every accomodation to our Citizens which he can, consistently with his obligations to the Associated Presses.
[New Brunswicker]
[Reprinted in the New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 21 April 1849]

"Associated Presses" (plural) refers to
the Boston Associated Press and
the New York Associated Press,
which then were separate organizations.





Saturday, 28 April 1849
        The news was received at Saint John at half past nine o'clock on Thursday morning by the Associated Newspaper Express, the Post Office Letter Express arrived yesterday morning at half past seven and the Newspaper Express at one this morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 28 April 1849]




Saturday, 5 May 1849
        The Post office Expresses for the conveyance of the English Mails through this Province, having been discontinued, the only intelligence we have yet received by the Mail Steamer of the 21st ult. [April 21st, 1849] was brought to Saint John by the Express for the United States Associated Press.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 5 May 1849]




Saturday, 12 May 1849
        The Royal Mail Steamer Cambria left Boston on Wednesday for Halifax and Liverpool, with twelve passengers for the former and seventy seven for the latter place.  She had a mail of about 25,000 letters and 14 bags of newspapers.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 12 May 1849]




Saturday, 19 May 1849
THE MAILS FROM HALIFAX
        Since the discontinuance of the Express Mails through New Brunswick with letters and newspapers from England, the want of more frequent mail communication with Halifax has become more and ever apparent.  By the present arrangement the English Mails arriving in Halifax on Wednesday night will remain there until Saturday afternoon, before they can be despatched for this Province.
        We are aware that the subject has engaged the attention of the Executive of this Province, and the expense of Express Mails was thought to be too great in the present state of the Provincial finances.  We think, however that in addition to our two Mails a week by land, another be conveyed weekly between St. John and Halifax, via Digby, and Annapolis, at a very trifling expense, as the mail communication has for years past both kept up by Steamers from this port to Digby and Annapolis, between which places and Halifax there are Mails twice a week.  We are surprised that Mails are not conveyed between St. John and Halifax by this route, as the distance can be travelled in much less time than by the entire land route, and the mails are now conveyed between the several places on the line, we trust that no time will be lost in making arrangements for the conveyence of Mails between the extreme points of the route, Halifax and St. John.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 19 May 1849]




Saturday, 2 June 1849
TELEGRAPH LINE
        The portion of the stock of the Telegraph Company, required to be taken in Halifax, having been subscribed for there, the construction of the line from St. John to Amherst will be commenced immediately, and will probably be completed by 1st October.  The line from Amherst to Halifax is about to be constructed by the Nova Scotia Government.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 2 June 1849]




Saturday, 9 June 1849
        The steamship Europa, with the English Mail of the 26th May, arrived in Halifax on Tuesday last, in a little short of ten days passage from Liverpool.  The news arrived at Saint John by express via Granville, a few minutes before six o'clock on Wednesday morning and the letters and papers were received by the Halifax land mail yesterday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 June 1849]




Saturday, 9 June 1849
THE MAILS TO AND FROM HALIFAX
        An advertisement from the Deputy Postmaster General in Saint John, calling for tenders to carry Express Mails between Saint John and Halifax, is now being published in the provincial Newspapers.  The necessity of some alterations in the present mode of converying letters for and from England, between St. John and Halifax, is now so apparent that it is admitted by every one.
        Until the late change in the arrangement for carrying the Canada Mails, we participated in the advantage of the Expresses which passed through this Province with the Mails from England, but not of those with the Mails from Canada; and as the regular Mails to Halifax from this City, leave here on Wednesdays and Saturdays, letters to be in time for the Steamers which leave Boston, require to be mailed here on Saturdays — six days before they leave Halifax — as the Steamer gets to that port early on Fridays and generally starts for England a few hours before our Wednesday Mail reaches that city; so that, during the summer, two Mails have to be despatched from St. John for England every alternate week, and none the intermediate ones!
        We are therefore please to find that it is contemplated to have Express mails for as well as from the Steamers, and that tenders will be received for carrying them across the Bay, by way of Annapolis as well as by the land route through Westmorland, Amherst, &c.  The former is the shorter route of the two; but as it would be necessary at all times for the Bay boat to be at her station nine days after each Mail leaves England, where she might have to wait for some days, the expense of the undertaking by the route may be an objection to it.  But this would not apply to an Express from St. John, or to a regular Mail between this City and Halifax being conveyed by way of Granville or Annapolis at all seasons of the year, or by way of Windsor in the summer, and the Steamers ply regularly between St. John and these places every week — one of them carrying Mails to Digby and Annapolis — and as Mails are received from Halifax at the latter place three times each week, and at Windsor daily, we are at loss to account for such favorable routes being overlooked especially as the additonal weight of the St. John bags could add but little to the present expense of the service, while the public would be greatly accommodated.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 June 1849]

There is a most interesting phrase in this item:

"it would be necessary at all times for the Bay boat to be at her station nine days after each Mail leaves England, where she might have to wait for some days"


This throws light on how the steamship, chartered for the Fundy crossing, was scheduled for Craig's Associated Press express.

It was specified, in Cunard's contract with the British Admiralty, that the Royal Mail Steamships were to depart from Liverpool precisely at noon on Saturday, with serious financial penalties for any delay in departure.

The time taken by Cunard's steamships to cross the North Atlantic from Liverpool to Halifax was usually about nine to twelve days.

America achieved one of the faster trips when it arrived at Halifax at mid-afternoon Monday, June 18th, 1849, in a couple of hours over 9 days from Liverpool — and the AP horse express reached the chartered boat about dawn on Tuesday.

One of the slower trips was made by Canada, which arrived at Halifax late in the evening of Thursday, March 15th, 1849, in 12 days 10 hours from Liverpool — and the AP horse express reached the chartered boat about 8:30am Friday.

Most trips fell between these times, with the longer times mostly attributable to adverse weather conditions, such as sustained headwinds and heavy seas.

For the purpose of scheduling the cross-Fundy Associated Press steamship, an allowance of nine days flat for the trip from Liverpool to Halifax would have allowed for the most optimistic expectation of the fastest possible voyage.  Thus it was highly unlikely that any of Cunard's ships could arrive at Halifax earlier than about noon Monday.

When the time is added, for the horse express to get to Granville Point (Victoria Beach) from Halifax — about nine hours or so — one sees that there would be no need for the chartered Bay of Fundy steamer before late afternoon Monday.

In the normal course of operations on the 1849 North Atlantic service, the Associated Press news express could have arrived at Granville Point (Victoria Beach) any time after Monday afternoon, but might arrive there as late as Friday.  The chartered boat spent a lot of time waiting – with the expensive contractual requirement that steam had to be "kept up" (the boiler had to be kept hot with steam at full working pressure) at all times, day and night, to enable a quick departure on the trip across Fundy whenever the horse express from Halifax might arrive.





Saturday, 9 June 1849
THE ENGLISH MAILS FOR CANADA
        The Quebec Mercury complains of the delay now experienced in the receipt of letters by the English Mails.  Formerly, when the Mails for Canada were conveyed through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the letters were on some occasions received in three days and a half after the Steamer's arrival in Halifax; whereas, by the present arrangement through the United States, a week had elapsed before the letters by the last Steamer had even reached Montreal after her arrival at Halifax.
[Quebec Mercury]
[Reprinted in the New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 June 1849]




Saturday, 16 June 1849
        The first June Mail from England, with Liverpool dates to the 2nd of June arrived at Halifax on Wednesday morning last, by the Steamer Cambria in a few hours less than eleven days' passage.  The Express Steamer Herald arrived in Saint John on Thursday morning at Four O'clock, with the news, and the letters and papers were received by last evening's Mail from Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 16 June 1849]




Saturday, 23 June 1849
        The Royal Mail steamer America, with the English Mail of the 9th June, arrived in Halifax last Monday afternoon, after a passage of only nine days from Liverpool.  The news was received at Saint John on Tuesday afternoon by express and at two o'clock on Wednesday morning the steamer Commodore arrived from Windsor, bringing Mr. John Owens, of Saint John, who was a passenger in the America and to whose attention we were indebited for papers in advance of the Mail, which did not reach us until last evening, four days after its arrival in Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 June 1849]




Saturday, 23 June 1849
        The Morning Chronicle, in noticing the erection of the Magnetic Telegraph post, says it is rather remarkable fact, that it is now within a very few weeks exactly one hundred years since those remarkable discoveries were made in electricity that have caused the name of Dr. Benjamin Franklin to be memorable in history.  North America was the scene of those discoveries in 1749.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 June 1849]

This item refers to the Halifax Morning Chronicle's description of a ceremony held on the Halifax North Common on June 8th, 1849, as part of the official celebration of the Centenary of the founding of Halifax in 1749.  At this ceremony the first pole was set in place, for the new Electric Telegraph line between Halifax and Amherst which was to connect with the telegraph line between Amherst and Saint John.

The Halifax Novascotian of 18 June 1849 carried this (reprinted from the previous issue, 13th June): "During the afternoon (of June 8th) the first post [pole] of the Electric Telegraph was erected on the North of the Common, and three cheers vociferously given by the assembled multitude for the success of the Telegraph Company.  It is rather a remarkable fact that may be noticed en passant, that it is now within a very few weeks, exactly one hundred years since these remarkable discoveries were made in Electricity that have caused the name of Dr. Benjamin Franklin to be memorable in the history of Science.  North America was the scene of these discoveries in 1749."

In the 1840s and 1850s, this new technology was sometimes called "magnetic telegraph" and other times "electric telegraph." These are merely different names for the same thing; in time the term "electric telegraph" became the accepted usage.





Saturday, 30 June 1849
        The Mail Steamer of the 16th June — the Hibernia — arrived at Halifax on Wednesday last at two o'clock.  Her intelligence was received here by the express steamer Herald on Thursday morning at nine o'clock, and the Halifax Mail yesterday afternoon brought the letters and papers for Saint John.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 30 June 1849]




Saturday, 30 June 1849
ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        We understand that the Stock in this company being nearly all taken the work is about to commence on the route between Saint John and Halifax.  The posts [poles] are laid down all along the line, and two gangs of twenty-five men each, will commence on Monday morning.  The line is expected to be in working order by the first of September.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 30 June 1849]




Saturday, 7 July 1849
        The Steamer Canada, with another week's British Mail, bringing dates from Liverpool to the 23rd of June, arrived at Halifax on Tuesday morning last, in something less than ten days' passage.  The news for the United States Associated Press, reached Saint John at half past two o'clock on Wednesday morning by the Steamer Herald from Granville, and the letters and papers were brought by the regular Mail from Halifax yesterday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 7 July 1849]




Saturday, 7 July 1849
        The Mail Steamer Canada arrived at Boston on Wednesday evening, at half past six o'clock without any warning of her approach — the people being all engaged in celebrating Independence Day.  The Telegraph wires not being in working order, there was no intimation of her arrival at Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 7 July 1849]




Saturday, 21 July 1849
        The Post Office Express, with the letters and papers by the first July Mail, bringing dates from Liverpool to the 7th instant [July 7, 1849], arrived this morning, shortly before six o'clock, by the land route from Halifax.  The Express by way of Granville, for the United States Associated Press, reached Saint John at noon yesterday.  The Steamer Caledonia had a passage of a little over twelve days.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 21 July 1849]




Saturday, 28 July 1849
        The Steamer Europa, with the second July Mail, arrived at Halifax on Tuesday evening last, in a little over ten days from Liverpool.  She had 121 passengers in the first cabin, and some twenty in the second.  Her news was received at Saint John at one o'clock on Wednesday, by the Express across the Bay of Fundy for the United States Associated Press, and the letters and papers for this City, brought by the Post-Office Express over the land route, arrived on Thursday morning at eight o'clock.  Dates from England are to the 14th instant.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 28 July 1849]

It is believed that "one o'clock on Wednesday" means 1pm.





Saturday, 28 July 1849
        We regret to learn that the Mail which left this City by Express on Wednesday morning, 18th instant, to meet the Steamer Canada at Halifax, did not reach that City until some three hours after the departure for Liverpool.  She had had an extraordinary short run of thirty hours from Boston. Messrs. Charles Patton and John Magee, of Saint John, were among the passengers by the Canada.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 28 July 1849]




Saturday, 4 August 1849
        The steamer Cambria arrived at Halifax at half past two o'clock on Thursday morning last, in 11 and half days from Liverpool, with the English Mail of the 21st July.  She had fifty-five passengers for Boston and two for Halifax.  On the 22nd the Cambria passed the Mail Steamer Hibernia from New York and Halifax, going up Channel.  The news for transmission by telegraph to the United States Associated Press, was received at Saint John between eight and nine o'clock on Thursday evening, by the Express Steamer Herald from Granville.  The letters and papers for Saint John, by the Post Office Express, via the land route, did not arrive here until six o'clock last evening.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 4 August 1849]




Saturday, 4 August 1849
        The Mail Steamer America arrived at Liverpool on the 15th, in eleven days from Boston.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 4 August 1849]




Saturday, 11 August 1849
        The news by the America, British Mail Steamer of the 28th July, was received at Saint John by the express for the United States Associated Press at twelve o'clock on Tuesday night, America having arrived at Halifax at an early hour that morning in nine days and a half from Liverpool.  The Post Office Express, by the land route, with the letters and papers for this City, came in on Wednesday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 11 August 1849]




Saturday, 11 August 1849
SHIPWRECK OF A MAIL STEAMER
        The Kestrel, one of the new Cunard Steamers, recently built in the Clyde for the conveyance of the Mails between Halifax and Newfoundland, has been shipwrecked on the dangerous coast near St. Shott's.  She left Halifax on the 19th ultimo [July 19] and Sydney on the 21st and at half-past ten o'clock on the night of Sunday the 22nd, without any previous intimation of danger, when going at the rate of ten knots, she struck against rocks on the coast of Newfoundland, which subsequently proved to be inside of the western head of the much-dreaded Bay of St. Shotts.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 11 August 1849]




Saturday, 18 August 1849
        The English Mail of the 4th August, per Steamer Hibernia, 9½ days from Liverpool to Halifax, arrived at Saint John at nine o'clock on Wednesday night, by the Post-Office Express.  Intelligence of the Steamer's arrival at Halifax on Tuesday morning, was received at Saint John a few hours before the arrival of the Mail, by the Steamer Herald from Windsor.
        No Steamer was dispatched to Granville, to meet the Express for the United States Associated Press — and its failure, in this instance, is not justly attributable to "fog in the Bay".
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 18 August 1849]




Saturday, 18 August 1849
        At a meeting of the stockholders of the New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company, held in Saint John on Monday last, the following gentlemen were chosen Directors for the ensuing year :– G.R. Darrow, of New York; James Donaldson, of Halifax; and Edward Allison, John Duncan and Robert Jardine, of Saint John; and at a subsequent meeting of the Directors, Mr. Jardine was chosen President.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 18 August 1849]




Saturday, 25 August 1849
        The Mail Steamer Canada, with the English Mail of the 11th August, arrived in Halifax on Wednesday evening last at nine o'clock, in 11½ days from Liverpool.  She brought 130 passengers, among whom were the Rev. W.H. Shore, of Fredericton, and Messrs. John Haws and Robert Sheraton, of Saint John.  The Express for the United States Associated Press arrived here at two o'clock on Thursday afternoon, and the letters and papers by Post Office Express, overland route from Halifax, soon after nine o'clock yesterday morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 25 August 1849]




Saturday, 25 August 1849
THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH TO HALIFAX
        The Telegraph Posts between Amherst and Halifax being nearly up, the Halifax Sun says that we may fairly calculate on having the wires in speaking order early in October.  On this end of the line, the Posts [poles] are not only up, but the stretching of the wire upon them has already commenced.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 25 August 1849]




Saturday, 8 September 1849
        The Steamship Niagara, with the English Mail of 25th August, arrived at Halifax on Wednesday morning at six o'clock, in ten days and a half from Liverpool.  The Express (per steamer Herald, from Granville), for the United States Associated Press, reached Saint John about ten o'clock the same night, and the Mail for Saint John was received by the Post Office Express at one o'clock on Thursday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 8 September 1849]




Saturday, 15 September 1849
        The weekly Mail from Britain, per Steamship Europa, with dates to the 1st September, arrived in Saint John at half past five o'clock on Wednesday morning, by Post Office Express — the Steamer having made the run from Liverpool to Halifax in a few hours over nine days, arriving at the latter part on Monday evening — The Express, by way of Granville, for the United States Associated Press, arrived in Saint John at Two o'clock on Tuesday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 15 September 1849]




Saturday, 15 September 1849
NEW BRUNSWICK ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY
        A fourth installment of Twenty-five per cent on the new Subscription for stock in this company is required to be paid into the Commercial Bank in this City on or before the Twenty-second day of September instant [22 September 1849].
        Subscribers in Halifax are requested to pay in their respective amounts to James Donaldson, Esq. Chairman of Committee in Halifax.
        By order of the Board, R. Jardine, President. (Saint John, Sept 15, 1849)
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 15 September 1849]




Saturday, 22 September 1849
        The Steamer Cambria, with the English Mail of the 8th September, arrived at Halifax on Wednesday evening, after a stormy passage for the season of over eleven days.  The Express Steamer from Granville, with the news for the United States Associated Press, arrived at Saint John between twelve and one o'clock on Thursday, and the Post Office Express with the Mail for this city, got in at seven yesterday morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 22 September 1849]




Saturday, 29 September 1849
        The news by the British Mail Steamer of the 15th instant, were received here by the Express Steamer from Granville, at four o'clock on Wednesday morning, for transmission by telegraph to the United States; the Post Office Express, with the Mail for this City, arrived at ten o'clock on Wednesday night.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 29 September 1849]




Saturday, 29 September 1849
MAIL CONTRACT
GENERAL POST OFFICE
Saint John, 22nd September, 1849]
        TENDERS addressed to the Deputy Postmaster General, will be received at this Office until Tuesday the 2nd October next, afternoon, from such persons as may be desirous of entering into the Contract for the conveyance of Her Majesty's Mails, during the Winter (that is, when the navigation of the River Saint John is stopped) twice a week each way, between Saint John and Fredericton.  The Mails to be conveyed at a rate of speed not less than seven miles an hour.
        Tenders are also invited for the performance of the same service three times a week each way, and six times a week each way.  The names of two responsible persons, to become bound with the party tendering, for the due performances of the Contract, must be given in with each tender.  Any further information respecting the services can be obtained on application at the Office.
J. Howe, D.P.M.G.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 29 September 1849]

In 1849, Joseph Howe was Deputy Post Master General at Halifax.





Saturday, 6 October 1849
        The Royal Mail Steamer Canada, with the British Mail of the 22nd September, arrived at Halifax on Tuesday morning last in 9¼  days from Liverpool.  She had seventy-five passengers; among them, the Hon. Mr. Hincks, of Canada, returning from his mission to England, to obtain a loan of money to carry on public works in that Province.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 6 October 1849]




Saturday, 6 October 1849
        THE TELEGRAPH LINE is now completed through New Brunswick.  There are now offices at the Bend and Sackville, and there will be one also at Sussex Vale.  Yesterday various communications were made to and from Sackville.  An express with the English news for Boston and New York, will be run for the next two weeks from Halifax to Sackville: after that time it is expected the whole line will be complete to Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 6 October 1849]

These two reports make it clear that the last run of the Nova Scotia Pony Express, from Halifax through Kentville to Victoria Beach, was made on October 2nd, 1849, carrying the European News brought by the Royal Mail Steamer Canada, with the British Mail which departed Liverpool on September 22nd.  Canada arrived at Halifax on Tuesday morning, October 2nd, and the last express to Victoria Beach departed a few minutes after Canada's arrival.





Saturday, 13 October 1849
        The English Mail of the 29th September, brought to Halifax by the Steamer Caledonia, in a few hours short of eleven days from Liverpool, was received at Saint John at eleven o'clock on Thursday night.  The news had been received at Sackville the previous night, by horse express from Halifax, and telegraphed to the United States, for the Associated Press, but, we understand, did not reach Boston.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 13 October 1849]

This was the first batch of European News to be sent
for the Associated Press by telegraph from Sackville
to Boston and New York.





Saturday, 20 October 1849
        The first October Mail, brought by the Steamer Niagara, in 10½ days from Liverpool, was received in Halifax at two o'clock on Wednesday morning last.  The Post Office Express for Saint John arrived a little before one o'clock on Thursday.  The Steamer experienced rough weather on the passage, and had her figurehead and bulwards carried away.  She had 154 passengers — of these, Capt. Fowles, Lady and servant, and Mr. Clow landed at Halifax.  The news was conveyed by horse express to Sackville, and from thence telegraphed at one o'clock on Wednesday to the United States.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 20 October 1849]

The transmission of the second batch of European News for
the Associated Press from Sackville to Boston and New York
began at one o'clock Wednesday afternoon, October 17th, 1849.





Saturday, 27 October 1849
        The Steamship Europa, with the English Mail of the 13th inst. arrived at Halifax on Wednesday morning, in 10½ days from Liverpool.  She brought 137 passengers, among whom was Mr. John Clark, of Carleton, St. John.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 27 October 1849]




Saturday, 3 November 1849
        The Express with the English news brought by the Hibernia, Mail Steamer of the 20th October, arrived at Sackville just as we were going to press.  The Mail will not be in before to-morrow night.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 3 November 1849]




Saturday, 3 November 1849
        THE TELEGRAPH LINE is now finished to Halifax, and as the instruments, for the want of which they have hitherto been prevented from communicating all the way through, go on by to-night's mail, we may expect the line to be in full operation by the beginning of this week.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 3 November 1849]




Saturday, 3 November 1849
        By the Steamer Commodore, from Portland, last evening, we received Boston papers of Thursday, and New York of Wednesday.
        The British Mail Steamship Niagara sailed from New York on Wednesday.  She had only fourteen passengers for Liverpool, and five for Halifax.  She took $137,218 in specie.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 3 November 1849]

Specie: coins, money in the form of minted pieces of metal





Saturday, 10 November 1849
        The English Mail of the 20th October, by the steamer Hibernia, did not reach this City until Sunday morning last — the steamer having experienced a stormy passage of thirteen days to Halifax.
        A little before seven o'clock this morning, the Post Office express arrived from Halifax with the letters and papers of the Cambria, Mail Steamer of the 27th ult.  The Steamer arrived at Halifax on Thursday evening, in twelve days' passage.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 10 November 1849]

The European News brought by the Cambria was carried by
the last trip of Daniel Craig's Horse Express, operated through
Nova Scotia for the Associated Press of Boston and New York.
This run departed Halifax on the evening of Thursday, Nov. 8th,
galloped through Truro and Amherst, and arrived in Sackville,
New Brunswick, on the morning of Friday, Nov. 9th, 1849.





Saturday, 10 November 1849
        The Telegraph line is now completed between Saint John and Halifax.  Communications were sent through yesterday for the first time.  The news by the next English steamer will be transmitted direct from Halifax.  We understand that arrangements have been made to obtain the news for the Reading Room here.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 10 November 1849]




Saturday, 17 November 1849
        The Post Office Express, with the English Mail of the 3rd instant, arrived from Halifax last evening.  The Mail was received in Halifax on Thursday morning, by the Steamer America, eleven days and a half from Liverpool.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 17 November 1849]




Saturday, 24 November 1849
        The Steamer Caledonia arrived at Halifax about nine o'clock yesterday morning, with the English Mail of the 10th instant, but up to the time of our going to press this afternoon, the news had not reached Saint John, owing it is said to breaks in the Telegraph wires, between this City and the Bend of Petticodiac.
        The Port Office Express, with the letters and papers will arrive this evening.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 24 November 1849]




Saturday, 1 December 1849
        The English Mail of the 10th of November arrived at Saint John last Saturday night, and the one of the 17th reached the Saint John Post Office a little before midnight on Thursday — the Steamer Canada having made the run from Liverpool to Halifax in ten days and a half.  James Kirk, Esq. of this city, came as a passenger in the Canada.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 1 December 1849]




Saturday, 8 December 1849
THE ENGLISH MAIL
        We learn, by telegraph, that the Post Office Express with the English Mail of the 24th November, passed the Bend of Petticodiac at six o'clock this morning.  It will therefore arrive at Saint John early this evening.  The Europa arrived at Halifax yesterday morning, but the wires on the Nova Scotia end of the line appear to have been broken soon afterwards, as no communication could be had with Halifax after eight o'clock.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 8 December 1849]




Saturday, 8 December 1849
        The Steamer Reindeer having encountered ice about twenty miles [about 30 km] below Woodstock on Saturday last, returned immediately to Saint John, and the Forest Queen, which left for Fredericton on Saturday night, has since, we learn, gone into winter quarters at Swan Creek.  The Saint John River was frozen over at Fredericton on Monday, and on Wednesday persons crossed on the ice.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 8 December 1849]




Saturday, 8 December 1849
The N.B.E.T.Co. Managing Director writes a letter to the editor:
        Since the completion of the line of Electric Telegraph to Halifax, it has had to withstand many rude unprincipled assaults, and its managers much shameful abuse, by the puerile falsehoods so freely published by a portion of the ignorant press, both of Saint John and Halifax ...
The complete text
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 8 December 1849]




Saturday, 15 December 1849
        The fourth November Mail from Britain, with dates from Liverpool to the 24th of the month arrived in Saint John last Saturday evening.  The Steamer, Europa, had a stormy passage of 12½ days to Halifax.  One day she only made ninety miles.  She had fifty passengers.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 15 December 1849]




Saturday, 15 December 1849
        The Steamer Maid of Erin will start from Saint John on Tuesday morning next [Dec. 18th] at nine o'clock, for Digby and Annapolis, to afford Passengers an opportunity of reaching Halifax in time for the Mail Steamer Europa for Liverpool, on the 21st inst.
        Her return will enable farmers and traders in Nova Scotia to have their produce in our market at the nick of time for Christmas.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 15 December 1849]




Saturday, 22 December 1849
CHANGE OF MAIL DAYS
        We understand that the Mail which was despatched from Saint John last week for England, did not reach Halifax in time to be forwarded — the Steamer Europa having arrived early on Friday, after a run of only sixty-four hours from New York, and proceeded soon after on the voyage to Liverpool.  To prevent such serious disappointments in future, the Mails for England will hereafter be closed some twelve hours earlier than formerly.  An official notice to that effect will be found in our advertising columns.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 22 December 1849]




Saturday, 22 December 1849
MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH Transatlantic Express!
        The undersigned have leased the office on the lower floor of Somerset House, corner of Granville and Prince Street, [Halifax] (same building with Magnetic Telegraph) for a MAGNETIC TELEGRAPHIC COMMERCIAL EXPRESS.  We respectfully offer our services to the Commercial community.
        Our connections are already made in England, France, United States and British Provinces.  Reference given to the best Commercial Houses in Liverpool, London, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, and New Orleans, for the prompt and faithful execution of all business entrusted to our care.
        H. & S. have arranged with the Hon. Francis O.J. Smith, President of the New York, Boston and Portland Telegraph Line, that all communications addressed through Hudson & Smith to meet the Steamers at Halifax, shall have the preference.
        Refer in Halifax to Hon. Joseph Howe, Wm. Young, Esq, Hon. Geo. R. Young, William Murdock, Esq. [Menta?] B. Wier & Co., and to all the Officers of the Royal Mail Steamers.
        Hudson & Smith, Merchants Exchange, Boston, Mass.
        Halifax, Dec 8, 1849
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John.
This advertisement was in every issue from 22 December 1849 to 25 January 1850.]

Joseph Howe, George R. Young, and W. Murdoch were
Commissioners of the Nova Scotia Electric Telegraph.
See Advertisement in the Novascotian, 11 June 1849.





Saturday, 29 December 1849
ARRIVAL OF THE SECOND DECEMBER MAIL
        The Steamer America, with the British Mail of the 15th December, arrived at Halifax yesterday morning at six o'clock; but although the wires were understood to be in working order all the morning, the fact was not known here until about ten o'clock, when the transmission of the news for the United States Associated Press commenced.
        We understand that inquiry will be made by the officers of the Company here, into the cause of this reported delay of four hours, with the view of preventing a similar occurrence in future.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 29 December 1849]




Saturday, 5 January 1850
        The English Mail of the 15th December, brought to Halifax by the steamer Cambria, in twelve and a half days from Liverpool, was received in Saint John on Saturday evening [Dec. 29th 1849] by the Post Office Express.  The steamer had eighty passengers to Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 5 January 1850]

This item conflicts with the previous item dated 29 December.  One states
the English Mail of 15th December was brought by R.M.S. America,
while the other states the same Mail was brought by R.M.S. Cambria.
We hope to sort this out by finding reports in other sources.





Saturday, 12 January 1850
        We have no intelligence of the arrival of the Mail Steamer Canada at Halifax now fourteen days out.  Since six o'clock this morning there has been some interruption in the working of the Telegraph wires between Halifax and Truro.
        The Express Mail had not passed the latter place at two o'clock today, so that the Steamer could not have arrived up to six this morning.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 12 January 1850]




Saturday, 12 January 1850
ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH
        In whatever country Telegraph lines have been established, the public press is allowed privileges not accorded to individuals.  This is rendered necessary because a summary of the news, sufficient to satisfy public curiosity and business requirements cannot be sent through in the time private messages are limited to.  On the arrival the Indian or American mail in England, all private business must stop until a despatch is sent through for the press.  In like manner, at Halifax, a despatch of three thousand words, sufficient to fill about a column and a half of a newspaper, and which may be sent through in about three hours, is forwarded on the arrival of the British steamers, for the use of every newspaper, news room or club that will pay their proportion of the price, and is delivered simultaneously at every office on the line through the Provinces and the United States.
        Such part of the despatch as we require is taken for our news room here.  We have not to wait for this, as it has been falsely stated, until after it has been published in the States, but receive it as it passes over the wires; of course we cannot get the news peculiar to St. John until after the general despatch has passed.
        We are not aware that the telegraph stockholders are at all dissatisfied with this arrangement; indeed, it was held out as an inducement to them to take stock, that the newspaper despatch might be depended on as a main source of income.
        We have been requested to make this explanation on account of gross fabrications having been late industriously circulated, calculated to excite the public against telegraph companies.  Upon such false grounds a red-republican code of morality is propounded, by which the cowardly crime of maliciously cutting the wires is palliated, if not justified.  Those who have the impudence to set up such a plea, can surely not claim to rank with honest men, for less to set as guides to public opinion.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 12 January 1850]




Saturday, 19 January 1850
        The steamer Canada, with British Mail of the 29th December, arrived at Halifax on Sunday morning last, after a stormy passage of 14¾ days.  She brought 103 passengers, and a very valuable cargo of merchandise — her freight list amounting to about £8000.
        The arrival of the Steamer was announced by Telegraph on Sunday, and the despatch for the Associated Press sent through, after some interruptions.  On Monday forenoon a despatch was received at the News Room containing the heads of the news, with a report of the Timber market, and the arrival of Vessels from this port.
        The Express Mail reached Saint John between one and two o'clock on Tuesday morning.  Capt. Richard Wright, who was a passenger in the Canada, came on by the Express Stage from Halifax.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 19 January 1850]




Saturday, 26 January 1850
THE ENGLISH MAIL
        The arrival at Halifax of the Mail Steamer Niagara, was announced by Telegraph at an early hour on Thursday morning, but some interruption in the wires took place immediately afterwards, which as has since been ascertained was about equi-distant between St. John and the Bend of Petitcodiac, and was not, therefore, reached before the evening, when the news were transmitted to Portland, Maine, for the Associated Press, and thence carried to Boston by Mr. Spear (formerly of the steamer Admiral), in an Express railway train, and published in Boston yesterday morning.  Mr. F.O. Smith, the superintendent of the Telegraph line between Portland and Boston, refuses to allow the news to be conveyed over his wires, so long as the Associated Press employs D.H. Craig as their agent.
        The Express Mail reached the St. John Post Office at five o'clock last evening.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 26 January 1850]

        The "vexations" endured by the Associated Press management in the early days "were aggravated by dissentions which grew up between the managers of some of the Morse telegraph lines and the press.  There were also contentions between the members of the press in Boston and other places, fanned if not engendered by the jealousies of some of the Morse lines, and especially by those under the control of F.O.J. Smith.  This gentleman refused to have steamers' news come over his line from Halifax, for the Associated Press, unless they dismissed Mr. Craig, then acting as their Halifax agent.  This led to a rupture, by which the press of Boston became divided.  The Association retained Mr. Craig, and ran a special locomotive express at an enormous expense with each steamer's news, from Portland to Boston, there being no telegraph between these two points but that owned by Smith.  From Boston it came over by the Bain line to New York.  The Association also, by its encouragement, caused a company to extend the Bain line from Boston to Portland, where it connected with the lines extending thence to Halifax, and which were beyond the control of Smith.

        The war was a very fierce one; many phamphlets appeared on both sides, including one by Mr. Craig in his defence against Smith's charges.  The latter left no stone unturned.  Among other efforts to thwart the Association, it is said that he endeavored to get control of one of the links on the Halifax line east of Portland.  He also appealed to the Provincial Legislature of New Brunswick, and protested against the management of the Halifax line by its superintendent; but all without avail.

        His success in putting the newspaper press by the ears was not only less difficult, but more complete.  At one time Smith refused to receive and transmit private messages handed in by merchants and others for Halifax, or to let anything come over his line from thence..."

[The quotes are from page 140, Historical Sketch of the Electric Telegraph, by Alexander Jones, 1852, published by George E. Putnam, New York.]





Saturday, 9 February 1850
£25 REWARD!

        A reward of Twenty-five Pounds will be paid to any person or persons who will give such information as shall lead to the detection and conviction of any person or persons for committing breakage or injury to the Line of Telegraph from Calais to the Boundary Line of Nova Scotia.  The same sum will be paid for each convicted offender, for the earning year, &c.
R. Jardine, President, N.B.E.T.Co.
Dec 15.
New Brunswick Courier, Saint John.
This advertisement was in every issue published in February and March, 1850].

N.B.E.T.Co. was the New Brunswick Electric Telegraph Company,
which owned and operated the telegraph lines from Calais, Maine,
to Saint John, and from Saint John to the connection with the
Nova Scotia Electric Telegraph Company at the Nova Scotia border.

This was a substantial reward.  At that time, many workingmen
would have received less than £25 for a year's work.





Saturday, 16 February 1850
        We learn by telegraph to the News Room that fears are entertained for the safety of the Mail Steamer Falcon, from Newfoundland to Halifax, which had not arrived this morning being then some eight or ten days over her time.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 16 February 1850]




Saturday, 23 February 1850
        The missing Steamer Falcon, from Newfoundland, which we noticed last week as being over due at Halifax, arrived there on Wednesday, in four days from St. John's having been detained to repair machinery.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 February 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
        The Steam ship America, with the British Mail of the 9th February, arrived at Halifax last Saturday night, after a passage of over fourteen days.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
        The Mails due yesterday were all detained by the Storm.  The Halifax Stage got in last evening, about six hours after its usual time; but the Western Mail did not arrive until this forenoon.  The Fredericton Mail had not arrived at two o'clock today.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
        The Steamer Commodore started this morning for Digby and Annapolis, on her first trip this spring.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
        The Mail Steamer America, from Boston, arrived at Halifax yesterday afternoon at two o'clock, and proceeded on her passage to Liverpool at five pm.  Among the passengers who joined her at Halifax, were Charles C. Stewart, Esq. and Capt. Edward Hippisley, of Saint John.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
NEW BRUNSWICK ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY'S OFFICE
9TH MARCH, 1850
A CARD
        The subscriber begs leave to return thanks to the Captain of Police and to the Policemen, who so kindly gave immediate information to him last night, of the telegraph line being broken at Union Street.
L.R. Darrow, Managing Director.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850]




Saturday, 9 March 1850
GUNNISON'S EXPRESS
        A SPECIAL MESSENGER will be dispatched with Gunnison & Co.'s Express, on THURSDAY next, per Maid of Erin to connect with the Admiral, at Eastport, Maine.  Small Packages and Parcels will be forwarded as usual to any part of the United States; also to San Francisco, Sacramento, and Stockton, California.
Goods forwarded to Dye House, in Boston, and back to this City.
Thomas Hanford, Agent, St. John
J.R. Hall, Rail Road Exchange, Boston
March 2
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 9 March 1850. This ad appeared in all March issues.]

Today, this wording sounds very strange:
"...will be forwarded as usual to any part of the United States;
also to San Francisco, Sacramento, and Stockton, California."


At the time this newspaper was printed, at the height of the
California Gold Rush, California was not part of the United States.
See San Francisco chronology, 1850-1851
http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist/chron2.html





Saturday, 16 March 1850
        It will be seen by the following extract from the Halifax Sun, that Bain's line of Telegraph is not intended to extend further in this direction than Portland, Maine.
        "We are happy to be able to announce that the new Telegraph line between Portland and Boston, not under the management of F.O. J. Smith, will be completed in about a month, and put in connection with the Halifax line, the tolls by this new connection will be considerably reduced as the line is in opposition to Mr. Smith's monopoly."
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 16 March 1850]




Saturday, 16 March 1850
        By the Maid of Erin from Eastport, yesterday morning, we received Boston newspapers, through Favor's Express, down to Tuesday afternoon.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 16 March 1850]




Saturday, 23 March 1850
        The Niagara left Halifax for Boston at one o'clock on Friday morning.  The Express Mail for Saint John left Halifax at eleven o'clock on Thursday night, and passed Truro at half past twelve o'clock on Friday.  The mail waggon had been upset on the road and smashed, which caused a delay of five hours.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 March 1850]




Saturday, 23 March 1850
        We learn by Telegraph, that the Steamer Canada arrived at Halifax last evening, from New York, and proceeded on her voyage to Liverpool about eleven o'clock.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 March 1850]




Saturday, 23 March 1850
        The Boston Evening Telegraph of Tuesday last, received yesterday morning per steamer Maid of Erin, through Gunnison's and Favor's Expresses, contains a report of the first day's proceedings at the trial of Professor Webster for the murder of Dr. Parkman.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 March 1850]
In 1850, Mr. Tabor founded Street's Express, which operated between Fredericton and St. John, New Brunswick.  In 1853, John T. Smith took over operation of the express, and offered connecting service to the United States by Favor's Express and Gunnison's Express.  J.D. Turner took over Street's Express in 1855.  Beginning in 1857, Turner and Gunnison operated offered service to Peticodiac, Sackville, Dorchester, Fredericton and Woodstock, New Brunswick, as well as Annapolis, Windsor, and Halifax, Nova Scotia.  This arrangement ended in 1861.
Source: http://dalessandris.net/turners.aspx





Saturday, 23 March 1850
NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC
General Post Office
Saint John, March 19, 1850
        On and after Thursday the 21st instant, a Ship Letter Mail will be made up for the United States, and forwarded by the Steamer Maid of Erin. The Postage on the Letter by this Mail not exceeding half an ounce in weight will be 4½d, which must be paid in advance.
        So long as the Steamer continues her present arrangement of leaving at 7am, this office will be open for the receipt of Letters from 6am till 6:30am: after which, late Letters will be received for 15 minutes.
J. Howe, D.P.M.G.
[New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, 23 March 1850]

Half an ounce in weight is equivalent to about 14 grams.
"4½d" means 4½ pence.
(The currency then in use was pounds, shillings, and pence.)





10 July 1858
James Whitney, Steamboat Owner
James Whitney died July 10th 1858, aged 59 years.  Occupation Steamboat Merchant. Buried July 13th 1858, Church of England Burying Ground, Westmorland Road, Saint John.
        His wife Henrietta, younger sister to Sir. W.F. Williams K.C.B. Baronet, died July 25th 1873, age 68 years.
        His son Fenwick K., died Aug. 8th 1847, age 16 years.
        His daughter Charlotte Gibbons, wife of Dr. P. Smith, died Jan. 22nd 1860, age 20 years.
[Source: records of the Church of England Burying Ground, Saint John]


Notes

Thanks to M.R. of Quispamsis, who spent many hours searching hard-to-read old newspapers to find these nuggets; and thanks to the Saint John Regional Library for preserving and making available their 1849 copies of various New Brunswick newspapers.




Archived copies of the New Brunswick Courier, Saint John, N.B. May 2, 1811 – Feb. 11, 1865
are available at the Fogler Library, University of Maine, Orono, Maine
    http://www.library.umaine.edu/canstudies/news.htm





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