Photographs of
Chester
Bronze Cannons

Cast bronze


Chester
Lunenburg County
Nova Scotia

Located beside the War Memorial on the Parade,
South Street at Central Street

GPS location:   44°32'11"N   64°14'33"W



North Cannon

Manufactured 1813



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon
North cannon

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon, cast in 1813
Detail of north cannon
Cast by H.&C. King, 1813
for George III Rex
(King George III reigned 1760-1820)

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon detail
North cannon detail

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon serial number 484
North cannon: serial number 484

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon detail
North cannon detail


This pattern on the barrel represents Henry Phipps, First Earl of Mulgrave,
Master General of the Ordnance 1810-1818

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, north cannon detail
North cannon detail

Photographed on 4 November 2002







Chester: war memorial monument, general view looking north
The north cannon (far) and the south cannon (near)

Photographed on 31 October 2002

Note: This photograph was taken eleven days before the
the official unveiling of the plaque facing the camera.



Also see:   Chester War Memorial





Research Report on
Two Bronze Cannons
Chester, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia
March 2004



There are three separate markings, cast into three different
positions on the cannons' barrels. These reflect the differing
hierarchies of ownership and responsibility for the issue and
manufacture of the cannon and can be separately described
and reported on, as follows:
Conclusion

Because Henry and Cornelius King were Master Founder and
Assistant Founder at the Royal Brass Foundry between 1813
and 1818, and because Henry Phipps, as Earl of Mulgrave,
was Master General of the Ordnance at the same time, all
cannon cast at Woolwich between 1813 and 1818 should bear
the same combination of markings as those demonstrated on
these two examples.

These two cannon at Chester in Nova Scotia, and especially
that cast in 1813, will be among the earliest cannon cast by
the partnership of Henry and Cornelius King.

It must be remembered that during the War of 1812-1814 with
the United States of America, Britain was also fully engaged
in a war with Napoleonic France: thus, the outbreak of war
with the USA in 1812 would have necessitated the casting of
additional cannon. It is probable that these two cannon were
cast for the war in North America in 1812-1814.

— Research report by Stephen Wood, 1 March 2004
Stephen Wood Research, 24 Stanley Street
Southsea, Hampshire PO5 2DS, United Kingdom



References:

Blackmore, H.D., The Armouries of the Tower of London: The Ordnance.
(London, 1976)

Hogg, O.F.G., Forerunners of the Army Council,
in Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research
volume XI (1932) pages 101-148

Thorne, R.G., The House of Commons 1790-1820, volume IV
(London, 1986)

Thanks to Mr. Peter Finer
Ilmington, Warwickshire, England






South Cannon

Manufactured 1814




Chester: war memorial monument, south cannon, cast in 1814
Detail of south cannon
Cast by H.&C. King, 1814
for George III Rex

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, south cannon detail
South cannon detail

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, south cannon, serial number 505
South cannon, serial number 505

Photographed on 20 March 2003



Chester: war memorial monument, south cannon detail
South cannon detail

This pattern on the barrel represents Henry Phipps, First Earl of Mulgrave,
Master General of the Ordnance 1810-1818

Photographed on 30 April 2003



Other Old Cannons in Nova Scotia







Bronze

Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin commonly used in
18th and 19th century artillery. Often mistakenly called brass.

Brass versus Bronze

BRASS: An alloy composed of copper and zinc
and not suitable for ordnance.

BRONZE: An alloy composed of copper and tin
and definitely suitable for ordnance.

Bronze

A metal made of two or more pure metals (pure chemical elements),
mixed and melted together, is called an alloy.

Any alloy, or mixture, of copper and tin is called bronze.
Many bronze alloys also contain small amounts of other materials.

Bronze was one of the first alloys developed by metal workers
in ancient times. The Mesopotamians ushered in the Age of Bronze
about 4500 years ago. In the earliest fortified towns bronze was
used for shields, helmets, and battle axes.

4000 years ago the Chinese made early coins of bronze.

Bronze melts at a lower temperature than iron, reducing the
manufacturing cost. Bronze is softer and weaker than iron,
but bronze resists corrosion (especially seawater corrosion)
and metal fatigue better than iron. Because it does not rust,
bronze was preferred aboard ship or in seacoast forts.

Originally "bronze" was a term for copper alloys having
tin as the only or principal alloying element. In modern usage the
name "Bronze" is seldom used alone, and a term such as
"Phosphor Bronze" or "Aluminum Bronze" is used for
identifying alloys of copper and tin with small amounts of other
elements added to produce special characteristics.

Brass or Bronze?

As we prepare almost every issue of The Artilleryman Magazine
the confusion of "brass" and "bronze" comes up in things
written in an earlier time period when the terminology was
incorrect, or by modern writers who don't know the difference.

We recently came across this in Harold L. Peterson's
Round Shot and Rammers (Bonanza Books, 1969):

"In almost all the contemporary [18th and early 19th centuries]
references the term used is brass. Bronze is almost never mentioned.
Yet the alloy itself sometimes consisted only of copper and tin,
which would make it bronze according to a modern definition..."

The only brass guns were those made by the uninformed.
All surviving antique cannon of a copper-based alloy are
in fact "bronze." The actual definition of "gun metal" was
90 percent copper and 10 percent tin, which was the
strongest of the various bronze alloys.

— Submitted by Bill Anderson, 1st Continental Artillery

Online source: Brass or Bronze?The NWTA Spy, Spring 2000
    http://www.nwta.com/Spy/spring00/brass.html





Links to Relevant Websites

Mediaeval Bronze Ordnance Copper in the Middle Ages
The story of copper and its principal alloys, bronze and brass...
    http://64.90.169.191/education/60centuries/middle_ages/mediaeval.html


Cast Bronze Muzzle-Loaders
A first-class bronze cannon of 1500 differed hardly at all in essential
technology and ballistic performance from a cannon of 1850 designed to
shoot a ball of the same weight...
    http://www.sportshooter.com/reloading/earlyweapons.htm


Cannon History and Technology Gunfounding 101
by the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Museum, Key West, Florida
    http://www.melfisher.org/cannonsurvey/gunfounding101.htm


Manufacturing a Cast-Iron or Cast-Bronze Cannon
by the Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Museum, Key West, Florida
    http://www.melfisher.org/cannonsurvey/castguns.htm


Governor's Cannon by Turks and Caicos National Museum
Bronze cannons are relatively rare, perhaps because bronze retains considerable
value as scrap metal and is frequently recycled, particularly during times of war.
Those guns that have survived often provide a wealth of historical information...
    http://www.tcmuseum.org/projects/governors_cannon/


Appendix 3: The Design and Construction of Bronze Cannon in the 16th Century
...Sixteenth-century cannon founders, at least the good ones, made a serious and
largely successful effort to standardize their production methods. When we consider
the primitive conditions under which they worked of necessity and the almost total
lack of any direct means of measuring the quality of their product except by
destructive testing, either intentional or inadvertent, this level of standardization
is nothing short of amazing...
    http://www.angelfire.com/ga4/guilmartin.com/Appendix3.html


Gunfounding in the Late XVIIIth Century
    http://home.europa.com/~bessel/Naval/Forge.html


Chapter 2: Why Bronze Came Before Iron and Steel
    http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/science/inventions/chpt2.htm


History of the Rifled Cannon
    http://home.earthlink.net/~turnerbrigade/modemrif.htm


Books

Art of Gunfounding: The Casting of Bronze Cannon
in the Late 18th Century
edited by Carel de Beer
published 1991 by Jean Boudriot Publications
Crowborough, United Kingdom
ISBN 0948864079
232 pages with tables, 102 b/w figures, 2 b/w photos,
50 watercolours and 34 b/w full-page plates
Story of the Woolwich Brass Foundry and its refurbishment
and modernisation between 1770 and 1774 by the Verbruggens,
gunfounders from the Hague.
First UK edition limited to 1000 copies

Round Shot and Rammers by Harold L. Peterson
Illustrated by Peter F. Copeland, Donald W. Holst,
and Robert L. Klinger
Published 1969 by Bonanza Books, New York
ISBN 051711948X, 128 pages
This is an introduction to muzzle-loading land artillery
in the United States. Hundreds of specially developed
drawings and construction plans of the cannon and their
carriages.

English Artillery 1326 - 1716 by Oliver F.G. Hogg
published 1963 by the Royal Artillery Institution, London
310 pages with 8 illustrations

An Illustrated History of Artillery by Joseph Jose
published 1971 by Crescent Books, New York
217 pages with 24 color plates, 281 b/w illustrations
Traces the history and technology of artillery from its
beginnings in the 14th century to the 20th century.

Report on the Manufacture of Bronze Cannon 1850-1851
by W. Wade, published 1856
reprinted 1982 by Antique Ordnance Publishers,
Port Huron, Michigan

Cast For War: A History of Muzzle-Loading Artillery
by Joseph Thatcher, published 1985
New York State Bureau of Historic Sites
Waterford, New York

Ordnance and Gunnery by Brevet-Col.J.G. Benton
published 1867, 107 pages





Research Report on
Two Bronze Cannons
Chester, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

Royal Cypher of King George III



The Royal Cypher of King George III encircled by a crowned Garter and cast into the first reinforce of the barrel.
The Royal Cypher of King George III encircled by a crowned Garter and cast into the first reinforce of the barrel

This denotes the cannon as being the property of the British Crown, symbolised in the person of the King as Head of State. Markings such as this have been used to denote the ownership of cannons in Britain since the sixteenth century.

The crown that surmounts the Garter symbolises the monarchy, the Royal Cypher GR stands for Georgius Rex ("King George" in Latin, the formal language traditionally used in the Royal Style and Titles of the monarch) and the Garter is used to denote the fact that King George III was both the Sovereign of The Most Noble Order of the Garter and the Principal Knight Companion of the Order, the senior Order of Chivalry in the British honours system.

— Research report by Stephen Wood, 1 March 2004
Stephen Wood Research, 24 Stanley Street
Southsea, Hampshire PO5 2DS, United Kingdom



More about these bronze cannons


Research Report on
Two Bronze Cannons
Chester, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

Earl of Mulgrave
Master General of Ordnance




The initial letter M within a wreath of laurel surmounted by the coronet of an earl and cast into the chase of the barrel.
The initial letter M within a wreath of laurel surmounted by the coronet of an earl and cast into the chase of the barrel

This symbol denotes The Honourable Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave (1755-1831). At the time of these cannons being cast, he was Master General of the Ordnance, having been appointed to that post on 1 May 1810 and created Earl of Mulgrave on 7 September 1812; he remained Master General of the Ordnance until 1818.

The post of Master General of the Ordnance was a Cabinet post always held by retired or semi-retired soldiers of senior rank. The office of "Master of The King's Ordnance" was created in 1414 and had assumed the title "Master General of the Ordnance" by the end of the sixteenth century. The Master General held senior responsibility for the Board of Ordnance (created in 1518 and abolished in 1855), the Civil Department of State that was charged with the procurement, issue, repair and recovery of all warlike stores used by the British Army and Royal Navy: this covered all forms of weaponry, from bayonets to cannon, and included their ammunition too. The Master General was also, in his military capacity, commander of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of Royal Engineers.

Whereas the manufacture of small arms tended, especially in time of war, to be contracted out to private contractors, the manufacture of cannon was, by the early nineteenth century, a carefully controlled and monitored process undertaken at the Royal Brass Foundry at Woolwich (the basis of the famous Woolwich Arsenal). From the early sixteenth century some reference to the Master (or Master General) of the Ordnance usually appeared on cannon barrels cast for the British Army and, by the seventeenth century, it had become standard practice, when casting cannon barrels, to use some of the Master General's personal heraldry to symbolise his responsibility for the production and provision of the cannon. Sometimes, Master Generals decided to use their full armorial achievement ("coat of arms") but more usually, and certainly by the early nineteenth century, the Master General was symbolised by the initial letter of his title surmounted by the coronet appropriate to his rank in the peerage.

Thus, for The Honourable Henry Phipps as Earl of Mulgrave and Master General (1812-1818), the letter M was used and surmounted by the coronet of an earl. During his time as Master General but prior to his elevation in the peerage from the rank of baron to the rank of earl (1810-1812), Lord Mulgrave's cannon would have cast into them the letter M surmounted by the coronet of a baron, which is different in its form from that of an earl. The wreath of laurel that encloses the letter M signifies the fact that Lord Mulgrave was a distinguished soldier – laurel wreaths having been used since the time of the Roman Empire to symbolise and recognise military prowess.

The Honourable Henry Phipps was the third son of the 1st Baron Mulgrave (in the peerage of Ireland) and was educated at Eton College between 1767 and 1771. In 1775 he entered the British Army as an ensign (2nd lieutenant) in the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards. He was promoted lieutenant in his regiment, and captain in the army, in 1778 and purchased the rank of major in the 85th Regiment of Foot in 1779, purchasing promotion to lieutenant-colonel in the 88th Regiment of Foot in 1780, transferring to the 45th Regiment of Foot in 1782 and transferring back to the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards in 1783. He served in America during the War for Independence, as well as in the Caribbean.

Remaining in the army for the rest of his life, he was able to combine a military career with that of a politician: he was elected to represent the borough of Totnes in Devon in 1784 and then to represent that of Scarborough in Yorkshire in 1790. Promoted colonel in the army in 1790, he became a brigadier-general in 1793 and was also briefly governor of Toulon in the south of France during the British occupation of that port in that year. He was appointed honourary colonel of the 31st Regiment of Foot in 1793 and promoted to major general in 1794, being advanced to lieutenant-general in 1801 and to general in 1809. He retained an affection for the army throughout his life and vigourously supported it, its officers' welfare and all military affairs in both Houses of the British Parliament.

Succeeding his brother as 3rd Baron Mulgrave (in the peerage of Ireland) in 1792, he was created 1st Baron Mulgrave (in the peerage of Great Britain) in 1794 and so had to relinquish his seat in the House of Commons, exchanging it for one in the House of Lords. He was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1804 and sat in successive British Cabinets from 1804 until 1818, holding the offices of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1804-1805), Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1805-1806), 1st Lord of the Admiralty (1807-1810) and Master General of the Ordnance (1810-1818). He was advanced in the peerage to the rank of an earl, with the title Earl of Mulgrave (and the secondary title Viscount Normanby) on 7 September 1812 and was created a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) on 20 May 1820.

Lord Mulgrave married Martha Sophia Maling on 20 October 1795 and their marriage produced four sons and five daughters. He aged prematurely and was widely recognised as being, through mental and physical infirmiry, unfit for future public office by 1820. Lord Mulgrave died on 7 April 1831.

— Research report by Stephen Wood, 1 March 2004
Stephen Wood Research, 24 Stanley Street
Southsea, Hampshire PO5 2DS, United Kingdom



More about these bronze cannons


Mulgrave, Nova Scotia

The town of Mulgrave, on the west side of Canso Strait in Guysborough County,
Nova Scotia, was named for George Augustus Constantine Phipps (1819-1890),
Earl of Mulgrave, Governor of Nova Scotia 1858-1863.

George Augustus Constantine Phipps (1819-1890) was the son of
Constantine Henry Phipps (1797-1863), first Marquess of Normanby.
Constantine Henry Phipps succeeded his father as Earl of Mulgrave in 1831.

George Augustus Constantine Phipps (1819-1890) was the grandson of
Henry Phipps (1755-1831), the 1st Earl of Mulgrave and Master General
of the Ordnance (1810-1818)
.

George Augustus Constantine Phipps, second Marquis of Normanby,
born 23 July 1819, entered the Scots Fusilier Guards in 1838, and was
comptroller, and subsequently treasurer, of the Queen's household from
1853 till 1858. He was Governor of the British Colony of Nova Scotia
Feb 1858 - Sep 1863. He was Governor of Queensland, Australia, 1871-1874;
Governor of New Zealand 1874-1879; and Governor of Victoria, Australia, 1879-1884.

Marquesses of Normanby, Second Creation (1838)
Constantine Henry Phipps (1797-1863), 1st Marquess of Normanby
George Augustus Constantine Phipps (1819-1890), 2nd Marquess of Normanby
Constantine Charles Henry Phipps (1846-1932), 3rd Marquess of Normanby
Oswald Constantine John Phipps (1912-1994), 4th Marquess of Normanby
Constantine Edmund Walter Phipps (1954-  ), 5th Marquess of Normanby
General The Earl of Mulgrave GCB 1793-1831 Henry Phipps
    http://www.queensroyalsurreys.org.uk/colonels/054.html


Mulgrave, Earldom of Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911
    http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Earldom_Of_Mulgrave


Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby Encyc. Britannica 1911
    http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Constantine_Henry_Phipps%2C_1st_contess_of_Normanby


George Augustus Constantin Phipps (1816-1890) Earl of Mulgrave
    http://lt.gov.ns.ca/inner/frames/honourable/content/past/Mulgrave.htm

This webpage has disappeared from the WWW, but archived copies are available
in the Wayback Machine:

The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
George Augustus Constantin Phipps (1816-1890)
Earl of Mulgrave, Marquess of Normanby 1858-63
Nova Scotia Lieutenant Governor's website

Archived: 2005 April 27
http://web.archive.org/web/20050427095221/http://
    lt.gov.ns.ca/inner/frames/honourable/content/past/Mulgrave.htm

Archived: 2005 December 23
http://web.archive.org/web/20051223171244/http://
    lt.gov.ns.ca/inner/frames/honourable/content/past/Mulgrave.htm

Archived: 2006 May 03
http://web.archive.org/web/20060503014032/http://
    lt.gov.ns.ca/inner/frames/honourable/content/past/Mulgrave.htm


Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave Wikipedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Phipps%2C_1st_Earl_of_Mulgrave


Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess of Normanby Wikipedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
        Constantine_Henry_Phipps%2C_1st_Marquess_of_Normanby


Master-General of the Ordnance Wikipedia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master-General_of_the_Ordnance


Constantine John Phipps Mulgrave Appletons Encyclopedia
    http://www.famousamericans.net/constantinejohnphippsmulgrave/


Obituary: Oswald Constantine John Phipps (1912-1994), 4th Marquis of Normanby
    http://www.rnib.org.uk/xpedio/groups/public/documents/
        visugate/public_nbjun94.hcsp




Research Report on
Two Bronze Cannons
Chester, Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia

Henry & Cornelius King
Royal Brass Foundry, Woolwich




The names of the cannon founders, H&C KING 1813 and H&C KING 1814 cast into the first reinforce ring.
The names of the cannon founders, H. and C. King cast into the first reinforce ring

From the sixteenth century, British cannon began to be cast bearing the names of the men who were ultimately responsible for their casting. Such men were highly skilled and trained artisans. The practice of placing the founders' names on objects cast by them predates the casting of cannon, medieval church bells in England also often bearing the names of the men who cast them.

Henry and Cornelius King are believed to have been uncle and nephew. The brothers Henry and John King were first employed at the Royal Brass Foundry at Woolwich prior to 1770, when Andrew Schalch (1692-1776) was Master Founder there. Schalch retired in 1770 and was replaced by John (1712-1782) and Peter (1734-1786) Verbruggen, a father-and-son partnership from the United Provinces of the Netherlands who were joint Master Founders at Woolwich and who are believed to have thought highly of the skills of Henry and John King. Although the Royal Brass Foundry had been exceptionally busy with the production of cannon during the American War for Independence (1775-1783), work almost ceased in 1784 and it was only through petitions, supported by Peter Verbruggen, that the brothers King were able to remain employed at Woolwich.

On Peter Verbruggen's death in 1786, the Mastership of the Royal Brass Foundry notionally passed to Frederick Groves but, in Groves' absence, control was exercised over the Foundry by John King. In 1789, John King was appointed Foreman of the Foundry and his brother, Henry, appointed Assistant Foreman. At the same time, John King is believed to have successfully applied for his son, Cornelius, to be appointed to the post of Assistant Moulder (moulders were responsible for the artistic, and often heraldic, decoration cast into cannon barrels).

The outbreak of Britain's war with Revolutionary France in 1793 galvanised production at Woolwich and the production of cannon increased considerably. In 1797, John King was promoted to Master Founder and Henry King appointed Assistant Founder; in 1805, Cornelius King was appointed Foreman.

John King died in office in 1813 and his brother Henry was promoted to Master Founder, with Cornelius being promoted to Assistant Founder simultaneously. The partnership of Henry and Cornelius King continued at the Royal Brass Foundry until Henry's retirement in 1818 (coincidentally, the same year that Lord Mulgrave retired as Master General); Cornelius continued at Woolwich as Assistant Founder until retiring in 1822. Henry King died in 1825 and Cornelius died in 1835.

— Research report by Stephen Wood, 1 March 2004
Stephen Wood Research, 24 Stanley Street
Southsea, Hampshire PO5 2DS, United Kingdom



More about these bronze cannons


Woolwich Churchyard

195:   Mr. Cornelius King, late Assistant Founder of the Royal Arsenal died 9 January 1835
aged 53. Mrs. Mary King his wife died 16 May 1828 aged 40.
    http://www.kentarchaeology.org.uk/Research/Libr/MIs/
        MIsWoolwich/MIsWoolwich001-450.htm







Other Old Cannons in Nova Scotia


What's the big deal about cannons?

Nowadays, cannon and other forms of artillery from the 1700s and 1800s are nothing more than quaint noise-makers.  We see them only in the movies and on TV, or at occasional demonstrations at historic sites.  In their day, cannons were the most powerful, far-reaching and fearsome weapons available...



The Wayback Machine has archived copies of this document:
Bronze Cannons at Chester War Memorial

Archived: 2003 November 25
http://web.archive.org/web/20031125170721/http://www.newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html

Archived: 2004 May 11
http://web.archive.org/web/20040511145355/http://www.newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html

Archived: 2004 October 15
http://web.archive.org/web/20041015071403/http://www.newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html

Archived: 2005 March 09
http://web.archive.org/web/20050309065844/http://www.newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html

Archived: 2005 October 26
http://web.archive.org/web/20051026164415/http://newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html

Archived: 2006 February 15
http://web.archive.org/web/20060215073133/http://www.newscotland1398.net/lunenco/chesbronzcann.html






Photographs of War Memorials, Historic Monuments and Plaques in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1763.ca/remem/plaques.html



Chester war memorial Chester war memorial
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/chesmem.html


Chester Legion cannons Chester Legion cannons Chester
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/cheslgn.html


Norwegian war memorial at Chester Norwegian war memorial at Chester
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/norchest.html


Chester firemen memorial Chester volunteer firemen memorial Chester
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/chesfire.html


Swissair Flight 111 Memorial, Bayswater Swissair Flight 111 Memorial, Bayswater
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/swissbaysw.html


New Ross war memorial New Ross war memorial New Ross
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/rossmem.html


Chester Basin war memorial Chester Basin war memorial Chester Basin
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/chbasinm.html


Western Shore war memorial Western Shore war memorial Western Shore
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/weshore.html


Military Engineers: Gold River Bridge Military Engineers Gold River Bridge
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/goldriver.html


Military Engineers: Martins River Bridge Military Engineers Martins River Bridge
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/martinsriver.html


Hubbards war memorial Hubbards war memorial Hubbards
    http://ns1763.ca/hfxrm/hubbmem.html


Riverport war memorial Riverport war memorial Riverport
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/riverport.html


Mosher memorial Mosher memorial Lower LaHave
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/moshermem.html


Five Houses cannon Five Houses cannon Lower LaHave
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/5housescann.html


Blockhouse Hill cannon Blockhouse Hill cannon Lunenburg
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/blockhsecann.html


Camp Norway memorial Camp Norway memorial Lunenburg
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/norwaycmp.html


Veterans' Memorial Bridge Veterans' Memorial Bridge Bridgewater
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/bridgelahave.html


Parkdale-Maplewood war memorial Parkdale-Maplewood war memorial Parkdale-Maplewood
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/parkmaple.html


Montbeliard monument Montbeliard monument Lunenburg
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/montbeliard.html


Fort Point monument Fort Point monument LaHave
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/lahavefpm.html


Riverport: John Philip Ritcey monument Ritcey monument Riverport
    http://ns1763.ca/lunenco/ritceymon.html


Go To:   Nova Scotia History, Chapter One
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory01.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia Historical Biographies
    http://newscotland1398.ca/hist/nshistory00.html#ns-historical-biog

Go To:   Proclamations: Land Grants in Nova Scotia 1757, '58, '59
    http://planter2010.ca/proc/proclamations-ndx.html

Go To:   Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1805, edited by Richard John Uniacke
    http://ns1763.ca/law/ns-statutes1805-titlepg.html

Go To:   Nova Scotia Quotations
    http://ns1758.ca/quote/quotes.html

Go To:   History of Railway Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/rail/railways.html

Go To:   History of Electric Power Companies in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/electric/electric.html

Go To:   History of Automobiles in Nova Scotia
    http://ns1758.ca/auto/automobiles.html

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    http://ns1758.ca/tele/telephone.html

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       2008 Sep   144
       2008 Aug    96
       2008 Jul   178
       2008 Jun   176
       2008 May   174
       2008 Apr   196
       2008 Mar   175
       2008 Feb   213
       2008 Jan   159

       2007 Dec   132
       2007 Nov    97
       2007 Oct    89
       2007 Sep   138
       2007 Aug   112
       2007 Jul   124
       2007 Jun    82
       2007 May   114
       2007 Apr   115
       2007 Mar    72
       2007 Feb    66
       2007 Jan    69

       2006 Dec    35
       2006 Nov    67
       2006 Oct     -
       2006 Sep     -
       2006 Aug     -
       2006 Jul     -
       2006 Jun     -
       2006 May     -
       2006 Apr     -
       2006 Mar     -
       2006 Feb     -
       2006 Jan   146
"-" means data are not available

       2005 Dec   100
       2005 Nov   144
       2005 Oct   146
       2005 Sep   133
       2005 Aug   126
       2005 Jul   115
       2005 Jun   108
       2005 May    90
       2005 Apr   116
       2005 Mar   129
       2005 Feb    98
       2005 Jan   121

       2004 Dec   107
       2004 Nov   125
       2004 Oct   112
       2004 Sep    99
       2004 Aug   107
       2004 Jul   109
       2004 Jun   104
       2004 May   202
       2004 Apr   131
       2004 Mar   129
       2004 Feb    94
       2004 Jan   105

       2003 Dec    52
       2003 Nov    69
       2003 Oct     0

First uploaded to the WWW:   2003 November 16
Latest update:   2011 May 11